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{{Infobox Pope| English name=Blessed Calixtus II| image=[[:Image:Calixtus II.jpg|150px]]| birth_name=Guy de Vienne| term_start=February 1, 1119| term_end=December 13, 1124| predecessor=[[Pope Gelasius II|Gelasius II]]| successor=[[Pope Honorius II|Honorius II]]| birth_date=c. 1065?| birthplace=[[Quingey]], [[County of Burgundy]], [[Holy Roman Empire]]| dead=dead|death_date={{death date|1124|12|13|mf=y}}| deathplace=[[Rome]], [[Papal States]], [[Holy Roman Empire]]| other=Callixtus}} Ο Ευλογημένος Πάπας Κάλλιστος Β΄Κάλλιστος Β΄) (πέθανε στις 13 Δεκεμβρίου 1124), γεννημένος Γκυ ντε Βιέν, ο τέταρτος γιος του Γουλιέλμου Α΄, Κόμη της Βουργουνδίας (1057–87), εκλέχθηκε Πάπας στις 1 Φεβρουαρίου 1119, μετά τον θάνατο του Πάπα Γελάσιου Β΄ (1118–19). Το ποντιφικάτο του διαμορφώθηκε από την Έριδα της Περιβολής, την οποία κατόρθωσε να διευθετήσει μέσω του Κονκορδάτου της Βορμς (το 1122). Αν και η ημερομηνία γένννησης του δεν είναι γνωστή, ο μεγαλύτερος αδελφός του γεννήθηκε το 1061, και έτσι μπορούμε να συμπεράνουμε ότι ο ίδιος ο Γκυ γεννήθηκε μεταξύ 1065 και 1068.

Πίνακας περιεχομένων

Πρώιμη ζωή[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Ο Γκυ ήταν μέλος της ανώτατης αριστοκρατίας. Ο τέταρτος γιος μιας από τις πλουσιότερες οικογένειες στην Ευρώπη, ήταν μέρος ενός δικτύου αριστοκρατικών συμμαχιών. Μια αδελφή, η Γκιζέλα, παντρεύθηκε τον Ουμβέρτο Β΄, Κόμητα της Σαβοΐας (1080–1103) και μετά τον Ρενιέ Α' του Μομφερρά· μια άλλη αδελφή, η Μοντ, ήταν η σύζυγος του Εύδη Α' της Βουργουνδίας (1079–1103). Ο αδελφός του Ραϋμόνδος νυμφεύτηκε την Ουρράκα, τη διάδοχο της Λεον· έγιναν οι γονείς του Αλλφόνσου Ζ΄ του Λεόν. Ο αδελφός του Ούγος είχε διορισθεί Αρχιεπίσκοπος της Μπεζανσόν. Ο μακρινός ξάδελφος του Ερρίκος νυμφεύθηκε την Θηρεσία, την διάδοχο της Πορτογαλίας, γινόμενοι γονείς του Αλφόνσου Α' της Πορτογαλίας.

Καριέρα στην Εκκλησία[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Αρχιεπίσκοπος της Βιέννης[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Guy first appeared in contemporary records when, in 1088, he became the Archbishop of Vienne. He held strong pro-Papal views about the Investiture Controversy. As archbishop, he was appointed papal legate to France by Pope Paschal II (1099–1118); this was during the time that Paschal II, yielding to pressure from Emperor Henry V (1105–25), was induced to issue the Privilegium of 1111, by which he yielded much of the papal prerogatives that had been so forcefully claimed by Pope Gregory VII (1073–85) in the Gregorian Reforms. Guy, with kin both in Burgundy and the Franche Comté (that is, within the Emperor's jurisdiction and bordering it) led the pro-Papal opposition at the synod called at the Lateran in 1112; on his return to France he immediately convened an assembly of French and Burgundian bishops at Vienne, where the imperial claim to a traditional lay investiture of the clergy was denounced as heretical, and a sentence of excommunication was now pronounced against Henry V, on the grounds that he had extorted the Privilegium from Paschal II by a violence. These decrees were sent to Paschal II with a request for a confirmation, which they received, in general terms, for Paschal II had proved loath to take this step, October 20, 1112.

Καρδινάλιος[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Ο Γκυ (ή Γκουίντο) έγινε εμφανώς καρδινάλιος από τον Πασχάλη Β΄, ο οποίος πέθανε στις 21 Ιανουαρίου 1118.

Παποσύνη[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Κατά τις βίαιες αναμετρήσεις μεταξύ του Ερρίκου Ε' και τον διάδοχο του Πασχάλη Β΄, τον Πάπα Γελάσιο Β΄, ο Πάπας αναγκάσθηκε να φύγει από την Ρώμη, πρώτα στη Γαέτα, όπου στέφθηκε, μετά στο Αββαείο του Κλυνύ, όπου πέθανε στις 29 Ιανουαρίου 1119. Μέσα σε τέσσερις ημέρες ο Γκυ εκλέχθηκε Πάπας και στέφθηκε Πάπας στη Βιέννη ως Κάλλιστος Β΄. Στην αρχή, it φάνηκε ότι ο νέος Πάπας ήταν πρόθυμο· να διαπραγματευθεί με τον Ερρίκο Ε', ο οποίος έλαβεε την παπική πρεσβεία στο Στρασβούργο, και απέσυρε την υποστήριξη του από τον αντιπάπα που είχε κηρύξει στη Ρώμη. Συμφωνήθηκε ότι πάπας και αυτοκράτορας θα έπρεπε να συναντηθούν στο château de Mousson, κοντά στη Ρεμς, και τον Οκτώβριο νέος Πάπας άνοιξε την σύνοδο στη Ρεμςεποπτευόμενη από τον Λουδοβίκο ΣΤ' της Γαλλίας (1108–37), με τους περισσότερους από τους βαρόνους της Γαλλία και περισσότερους από τετρακόσοιυς επισκόπους και ηγούμενους. Ο Ερρίκος Ε' έφθασε για την προσωπική του σύσκεψη στο Mousson — όχι μόνος, καθώς προεξοφλούσε, αλλά με έναν στρατό πάνω από τριάντα χιλιάδες άνδρες. Ο Κάλλιστος Β΄, φοβούμενος ότι η δύναμη πιθανόν να χρησιμοποιείτο σε συγκεκριμένες επιβλαβείς παραχωρήσεις, παρέμεινε στη Ρεμς. Εκεί, ο Κάλλιστος Β΄ απασχολήθηκε αναποτελεσματικά με το να προσπαθεί για μια επανασυμφιλίωση μεταξύ των αδελφών Ερρίκου Α' της Αγγλίας (1100–35) και του Ροβέρτου Β΄, Δούκα της Νορμανδίας (1087–1106), και η σύνοδος αντιμετώπισε πειθαρχικές ρυθμίσεις και αποφάσεις εναντίον της λαϊκής περιβολής, τη σιμωνία, και τις παλλακίδες των κληρικών· μη υπάρχοντας συμβιβασμός που να έρχεται από τον Ερρίκο Ε', καθορίσθηκε ότι ο Αυτοκράτορας και ο αντιπάπας του θα έπρεπε επίσημα να αφορισθούν, στις 30 Οκτωβρίου 1119.

Επιστρέφοντας στην Ιταλία, όπου ο αντιπάπας Γρηγόριος Η΄ (1118–21) υποστηρίχθηκε από αυτοκρατορικές δυνάμεις και Ιταλούς συμμάχους του αυτοκράτορα, ο Κάλλστος Β΄ κατάφερε να κερδίσει το πάνω χέρι μέσω καθαρών επιδείξεων λαϊκής υποστήριξης. Ο Αυτοκρατορικος υποψήφιος υποχρεώθηκε να καταφύγει στο φρούριο του Σούτρι, όπου έγινε φυλακισμένος μέσω της παρέμβασης της Νορμανδικής υποστήριξης από το Βασίλειο της Νεάπολης· μεταφέρθηκε από φλακή σε φυλακή και πέθανε σε ένα φρούριο κοντά στο Σαλέρνο. Οι αυτοκρατορικοί σύμμαχοι στη Ρώμη σύντομα διαλύθηκαν.

Κονκορδάτο της Βορμς[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Έχοντας σταθεροποιήσει την εξουσία του στην Ιταλία, ο Πάπας αποφάισσε να ξανανοίξει διαπραγματεύσεις με τον Ερρίκο Ε΄ για το θέμα της περιβολής. Ο Ερρίκος Ε' ήταν ανυπόμονος να τελειώσει την διαμάχη η οποία είχε μειώσει την αυτοκρατορική εξουσία στη Γερμανία — τελικά έτσι, όπως φάνηκε στη μακριά σειρά. Μια πρεβεία τριών καρδιναλίων στάλθηκε από τον Κάλλιστο Β΄ στη Γερμανία, και οι διαπραγματεύσες για μια μόνιμη διευθέτηση του αγώνα της περιβολής άρχισαν τον Οκτώβριο του 1121 στο Βύρτσμπουργκ όπου συμφωνήθηκε ότι μια ανακωχή θα διακηρυσσόταν στη Γερμανία, ότι η Εκκλησία θα είχε ελεύθερη χρήση των κτήσεων της, και ότι οι γαίες αυτών της εξέγερσης θα έπρεπε να επιστραφούν. Αυτές οι αποφάσεις μεταφέρθηκαν στον Κάλλιστο Β΄, ο οποίος απέστειλε έναν λεγάτο Λαμβέρτο να βοηθήσει στη σύνοδο που είχε συγκληθεί στη Βορμς, όπου, στις 23 Σεπτεμβρίου 1122, η συφωνία γνωστή ως το Κονκορδάτο της Βορμς συνήφθη. Από την πλευρά του ο αυτοκράτορας εγκατέλιψε την διεκδίκηση του στην περιβολή με δαχτυλίδι και σκήπτρο, και εγγυήθηκε την ελευθερία εκλογής στις επισκοπικές έδρες· από την άλλη πλευρά, αναγνωρίσθηκε ότι οι επίσκοποι θα ελάμβαναν την περιβολή με το σκήπτρο, ότι οι επισκοπικές εκλογές θα διεξάγονταν με την παρουσία του Αυτοκράτορα ή ταν αντιπροσώπων του, ότι σε περίπτωση αμφισβητούμενων εκλογών ο αυτοκράτορας έπρεπε, μετά την απόφαση των μητροπολιτικών και των suffragan επισκόπων, να επιβεβαιώσει τον δίκαια εκλεγμένο υποψήφιο, και τελευταίο, ότι η αυτοκρατορική περιβολή των κοσμικών κτήσεων σχετικών με τις έδρεςθα έπρεπε να λάβουν χώραν στη Γερμανία πριν την χειροτόνηση, στην Βουργουνδία και την Ιταλία μετά από αυτήν την τελετή, ενώ στα Παπικά Κράτη ο πάπας μόνο είχε το δικαίωμα της περιβολής,χωρίς καμία ανάμειξη από το μέρος του Αυτοκράτορα. Ως αποτέλεσμα αυτού του Κονκορδάτου, ο Αυτοκράτορας ακόμη διατήρησε στα χέρια του την ελεγκτική ειρροή στην εκλογή των επισκόπων στη Γερμανία, αν και είχε εγκαταλείψει πολλά από την άποψη των επισκοπικών εκλογών στην Ιταλία και την Βουργουνδία.

Πρώτη Σύνοδος του Λατερανού[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

To secure the confirmation of this Concordat of Worms, Calixtus II convened the First Lateran Council, 18 March 1123, which solemnly confirmed the concordat and passed several disciplinary decrees, such as those against simony and concubinage among the clergy. Decrees were also passed against violators of the Truce of God, church-robbers, and forgers of ecclesiastical documents. The indulgences already granted to the crusaders were renewed, and the jurisdiction of the bishops over the clergy, both secular and regular, was more clearly defined.

ύστερη ζωή και θάνατος[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Ο Κάλλιστος Β΄ αφιέρωσε τα τελευταία του έτηστο να απανεγκαταστήσει τον Παπικό έλεγχο στην Καμπάνια και να εγκαθιδρύσει – με τη βοήθεια μερικών πλαστογραφιών (CE) – την αρχιερατεία της έδρας του της Βιέννης εις βάρος της έδρας της Αρλ, μια αρχαία σύγκρουση. Ξανάκτισε την εκκλησία της Σάντα Μαρία στο Κοσμεντίν, στη Ρώμη.

Ο Κάλλιστος Β΄πέθανε στις 13 Δεκεμβρίου 1124.

Βλέπε επίσης[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Αναφορές[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Academy-Britannica.png Αυτό το λήμμα βασίζεται ή περιλαμβάνει κείμενο από λήμμα της Encyclopædia Britannica του 1911 που αποτελεί κοινό κτήμα.
  • {{catholic}}

Εξωτερικοί σύνδεσμοι[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]


{{Πάπες Ρώμης}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Callixtus 2}} [[:Category:Γεννήσεις τον 11ο αιώνα]] [[:Category:Θάνατοι το 1124]] [[:Category:Πάπες Ρώμης]] [[:Category:Αρχιεπίσκοποι Βιέννης]]



"""Ανατολικός Χριστιανισμός'


Ο Ανατολικός Χριστιανισμός αναφέρεται συνολικά στις Χριστιανικές παραδόσεις και εκκλησίες που ανπτύχθηκαν στα Βαλκάνια, την Ανατολική Ευρώπη, τη Μικρ΄;α Ασία, την Μέση Ανατολή, την Βορειοανατολική Αφρική και τη νότια Ινδία μέσα σε αρκετούς αιώνες θρησκευτικής ιστορίας. The term is generally used in Western Christianity to describe all Christian traditions which did not develop in Western Europe. As such the term does not describe any single communion or common religious tradition (indeed some Eastern Churches have more in common historically and theologically with Western Christianity than other Eastern Churches).

The terms Eastern and Western in this regard originated with the division between the Eastern and Western Roman Empire and the cultural split that this caused. The term Orthodox is often used in the same way as Eastern in referring to church communions although, strictly speaking, most churches consider themselves part of an orthodox and catholic communion.

Οικογένειες των Εκκλησιών[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Eastern Christians do not have a shared religious traditions but many of these groups have shared cultural traditions. Christianity divided itself in the East during its early centuries both within and outside of the Roman Empire in disputes about christology and fundamental theology, as well as national divisions (Roman, Persian, etc.). It would be many centuries later that Western Christianity fully split from these traditions as its own communion (SEE: SCHISM). Today there are four main branches or families of Eastern Christianity, each of which has distinct theology and dogma.

All of the Eastern churches, as well as the Western churches, share a common Christian tradition and most of the same Christian Biblical canon. Many Eastern churches also share traditional practices in common which are not shared by the Western churches but there is no particular tradition that distinguishes non-Western churches from Western churches. In many Eastern churches, parish priests administer the sacrament of chrismation to infants after baptism, and priests are allowed to marry before ordination. While the Eastern Catholic Churches recognize the authority of the Pope, having originally been part of the Eastern Orthodox Church they closely follow the traditions of Eastern Orthodoxy, including the tradition of allowing priests to marry.

The Eastern churches' differences from Western Christianity have as much, if not more, to do with culture, language, and politics, as theology. For the non-Catholic Eastern churches, a definitive date for the commencement of schism cannot usually be given (see East-West Schism). The Assyrian Church of the East declared independence from the churches of the Roman Empire at its general council in 424, which was before the Council of Ephesus in 431, and so had nothing to do with the theology declared at that Council. Oriental Orthodoxy separated after the Council of Chalcedon in 451. Since the time of church historian Edward Gibbon, the split between the Church of Rome and the Orthodox Churches has been conveniently dated to 1054 (though the reality is more complex). This split is sometimes referred to as the Great Schism, but now more usually referred to as the East-West Schism. This final schism reflected a larger cultural and political division which had developed in Europe and southwest Asia during the Middle Ages and coincided with Western Europe's re-emergence from the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.

Ασσυριακή Εκκλησία της Ανατολής[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Η Ασσυριακή Εκκλησία της Ανατολής έχει τις ρίζες της στην Έδρα της Βαβυλώνας και λέγεται ότι έχει ιδρυθεί από τον Απόστολο Θωμά. Δέχεται μόνοτις δύο πρώτες Οικουμενικές Σύνοδοι της αδιαίρετης Εκκλησίας-την Σύνοδο της Νίκαιας και την Πρώτη Σύνοδο της Κωνσταντινούπολης—όπως ορίζει η παράδοση της πίστης του. Αυτή η εκκλησία, αναπτυσσόμενη μέσα στην Περσική Αυτοκρατορία, στα ανατολικά του Χριστιανικού κόσμου, ραγδαία πήρε μια άλλη μορφή από τους άλλους Ανατολικούς Χριστιανούς. Στη Δύση, ανακριβώς μερικές φορές αποκαλείται η Νεστοριανική Εκκλησία.

Ανατολίτικες Ορθόδοξες Εκκλησίες[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Η Ανατολίτικη Ορθοδοξία αναφέρεται στις εκκλησίες της Ανατολικής Χριστιανικής παράδοσης που κρατούν την πίστη των τριών πρώτων Οικουμενικών Συνόδωντης αδιαίρετης Εκκλησίας: τthe First Council of Nicaea (AD 325), the First Council of Constantinople (381) and the Council of Ephesus (431), and rejected the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon (451). Hence, these churches are also called Old Oriental Churches.

Oriental Orthodoxy developed in reaction to Chalcedon on the eastern limit of the Byzantine Empire and in Egypt and Syria. In those locations, there are now also Eastern Orthodox Patriarchs, but the rivalry between the two has largely vanished in the centuries since schism.

Οι ακόλουθες Ανατολίτικες Ορθόδοξες εκκλησίες είναι αυτοκέφαλες και σεπλήρη κοινωνία:

Eastern Orthodox Churches[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body whose adherents are largely based in Russia, Greece, Eastern Europe and the Middle East, with a growing presence in the western world. Eastern Orthodox Christians accept seven Ecumenical Councils.

Orthodox Christianity identifies itself as the original Christian church founded by Christ and the Apostles, and traces its lineage back to the early church through the process of Apostolic Succession and unchanged theology and practice. Orthodox distinctives (shared with some of the Eastern Catholic Churches) include the Divine Liturgy, Mysteries or Sacraments, and an emphasis on the preservation of Tradition, which it holds to be Apostolic in nature.

Orthodox Churches are also distinctive in that they are organized into selfgoverning jurisdictions along national, ethnic, and/or linguistic lines. Orthodoxy is thus made up of 15 or 16 national autocephalous bodies. Smaller churches are autonomous and each have a mother church that is autocephalous.

The Eastern Orthodox Church includes the following churches

Most Eastern Orthodox are united in communion with each other, though unlike the Roman Catholic Church, this is a looser connection rather than a top-down hierarchy (see primus inter pares).

It may also be noted that the Church of Rome was once in communion with the Eastern Orthodox Church, but the two were split after the East-West Schism and thus it is no longer in communion with the Eastern Orthodox Church.

It is estimated that there are approximately 240 million Orthodox Christians in the world.[1] Today, many adherents shun the term "Eastern" as denying the church's universal character. They refer to Eastern Orthodoxy simply as the Orthodox Church.

Eastern Catholic Churches[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Κύριο λήμμα: Eastern Catholic Churches

The twenty-two Eastern Catholic churches are all in communion with the Holy See at the Vatican, but are rooted in the theological and liturgical traditions of Eastern Christianity.

Many of these churches were originally part of one of the above families and so are closely related to them by way of ethos and liturgical practice. As in the other Eastern churches, married men may become priests, and parish priests administer the mystery of confirmation to newborn infants immediately after baptism, via the rite of chrismation; the infants are then administered Holy Communion.

The Maronite Church always remained in communion with the Holy See, and thus does not have a counterpart among the non-Catholic Eastern churches. The (Italo-Albanian) Italo-Greek Catholic Church has come under Papal authority very soon under the Schism, and thus has no counterpart not in communion. Eastern Catholics form around 2% of the entire membership of the Catholic Church. Most of the Eastern Catholic churches re-established communion with Rome during the 17th through 19th centuries.[2]

Rejection of Uniatism[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

At a meeting in Balamand, Lebanon in June 1993, the Joint International Commission for the Theological Dialogue between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church declared that these initiatives that "led to the union of certain communities with the See of Rome and brought with them, as a consequence, the breaking of communion with their Mother Churches of the East ... took place not without the interference of extra-ecclesial interests" (section 8 of the document); and that what has been called "uniatism" "can no longer be accepted either as a method to be followed nor as a model of the unity our Churches are seeking" (section 12).

At the same time, the Commission stated:

  • 3) Concerning the Eastern Catholic Churches, it is clear that they, as part of the Catholic Communion, have the right to exist and to act in response to the spiritual needs of their faithful.
  • 16) The Oriental Catholic Churches who have desired to re-establish full communion with the See of Rome and have remained faithful to it, have the rights and obligations which are connected with this communion.

Καθολικός-Ορθόδοξος οικουμενισμός[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Ο οικουμενικός διάλογος κατά τα τελευταία 43 έτη από την συνάντηση του Παύλου ΣΤ΄ με τυον Ορθόδοξο Πατριάρχη Αθηναγόρα Α΄ έχει αφυπνίσει τις σχεδόν χιλιετείς ελπίδες για Χριστιανική ενότητα. Από την άρση των αναθεμάτων κατά την συνάντηση του Παύλου ΣΤ΄και του Αθηναγόρα Α΄ στην Ιερουσαλήμ έχουν υπάρξει άλλες σημαντικές συναντήσεις μεταξύ των Παπών και των Οικουμενικών Πατριαρχών της Κωνσταντινούπολης. Η πιο πρόσφατη ήταν μεταξύ του Βενέδικτου ΙΣΤ΄και του Βαρθολομαίου Α΄, οι οποίοι υπέγραψαν την Κοινή Διακήρυξη. Αυτό αναφέρει ότι "Δίνουμε συγχαρητήρια στον Συγγραφέα όλων των καλών, που μας επιτρέπει ακόμη μια φορά, με προσευχή και διάλογο, να εκφράσουμε τη χαρά που νιώθουμε ως αδέλφια και να ανανεώσουμε την πράξη μας να κινηθούμε προς πλήρη κοινωνία". [2]

Dissenting movements[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

In addition to these four mainstream branches, there are a number of much smaller groups which, like Protestants, originated from disputes with the dominant tradition of their original areas, but are usually not referred to as Protestants because they lack historical ties to the Reformation, and usually lack a classically Protestant theology. Most of these are either part of the more traditional Old Believer movement, which arose from a schism within Russian Orthodoxy, or the more radical "Spiritual Christianity" movement. The latter includes a number of diverse "low-church" groups, from the Bible-centered Molokans to the anarchic Doukhobors to the self-mutilating Skoptsy. None of these groups are in communion with the mainstream churches listed above, aside from a few Old Believer parishes in communion with the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia.

There are national dissidents, where ethnic groups want their own nation-church like with the Macedonian Orthodox Church and Montenegrin Orthodox Church; both domiciles of the Serbian Orthodox Church. However, it should be noted that in Macedonia, the influence of the Serbian Orthodox Church is minimal to non-existent. The vast majority of Orthodox ethnic Macedonians view the Serbian Orthodox Church as hostile to Macedonian history, national interests, and self-determination. A little known movement of "reformers" in the Greek Orthodox Church traces its history to the 18th century. The leaders of this "schism" within the Orthodox Christian churches were called by a Greek word meaning 'unstable' (''[[astateos]]'').{{Fact|date=April 2007}} The children of these leaders left the East toward Western Europe, mainly Spain.{{Fact|date=April 2007}} In Ibero America these families are known by the derivative name 'Astacios' or 'Astacio.' One of their descendants was one of the first converts to the Pentecostal movement in 1916, Petra Astacio, of Montellano (Ponce, Puerto Rico).{{Fact|date=April 2007}} The Astacios have intermarried with native people of the Americas as well as with Spanish Jews (Sephardim) and Afro-Caribbeans.

Λειτουργία[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

The Eastern churches (excepting the non-liturgical dissenting bodies) each belong to one of several liturgical families:

Βλέπε επίσης[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Για άλλους ορισμούς και νοήματα για τη λέξη ορθόδοξος, βλέπε Ορθοδοξία.

Σημειώσεις[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

  1. See details for Major religious groups
  2. Parry, Ken et al., editors. The Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2001, pp. 167-169. ISBN 0-631-18966-1

Εξωτερικοί σύνδεσμοι[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

{{Christianityfooter}} [[Κατηγορία:Ανατολική Ορθοδοξία]] [[Κατηγορία:Ανατολικός Καθολικισμός]] [[Κατηγορία:Ανατολικός Χριστιανισμός| ]] [[Κατηγορία:Ανατολίτικη Ορθοδοξία]]



































Γεωργιαν΄λη εποχή




Γεωργιανή Εποχή
1714–1830

Η γεωργιανή αρχιτεκτονική του Σέρκους, Μπαθ, κτισμένο μεταξύ 1754 και 1768.

Ακολουθεί την   Περίοδος Στιούαρτ
Περιλαμβάνει Περίοδος Αντιβασιλείας
Ακολουθείται από   Βικτωριανή εποχή


Περίοδοι και εποχές στην Αγγλική Ιστορία
Περίοδος των ΤυδόρFamily of Henry VIII, an Allegory of the Tudor Succession.png (1485–1603)
Ελισαβετιανή εποχήElizabeth I (Armada Portrait).jpg (1558–1603)
Περίοδος των ΣτιούαρτJames I of England by Daniel Mytens.jpg (1603–1714)
Ιακωβιανή εποχήJames I of England by Daniel Mytens.jpg (1603–1625)
Καρολίνεια εποχήCarolus I.jpg (1625–1642)
Γεωργιανή εποχήThe.circus.bath.arp.jpg (1714–1830)
Βρετανική ΑντιβασιλείαGeorge IV bust1.jpg (1811–1820)
Βικτωριανή εποχήQueen Victoria 1887.jpg (1837–1901)
Εδουαρδιανή εποχήEdward vii england.jpg (1901–1910)

Η Γεωργιανή εποχή είναι μια περίοδος της Βρετανική ιστορία, κανονικά ορίζεται να περιλαμβάνει τις βασιλείες των μοναρχών Γεωργίου Α', του Γεωργίου Β', του Γεωργίου Γ' και του Γεωργίου Δ', δηλ. καλύπτει την περίοδο από το 1714 ως το 1830, (με την υποπερίοδο της της Αντιβασιλείας, που ορίζεται από την Αντιβασιλείατου Γεώργιου Δ' ως Πρίγκιπα της Ουαλίας κατά την αρρώστεια του πατέρα του Γεωργίου Γ'). Μερικές φορές η βασιλεία του Γουλιέλμου Δ' (1830 to 1837) περιλαμβάνεται επίσης.

120px |120px |120px |120px |- |Γεώργιος Α΄ |George II |George III |George IV


|}

References[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

  • Hochschild, Adam. Bury the Chains, The British Struggle to Abolish Slavery (Basingstoke: Pan Macmillan, 2005)
  • Phillips, Charles. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Kings and Queens of Britain. London: Hermes House (Arness Publishing), 2006 ISBN 0-681-45961-1
  • Napierała, Piotr , Sir Robert Walpole (1676-1745) – twórca brytyjskiej potęgi, Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, Poznań 2008, s. 33-38. ISBN 978-83-232189-8-2

Note: In the twentieth century, the period 1910–1936 was informally called the Georgian Era during the reign of George V (following the Edwardian Era), and is sometimes still referred to as such.[1]; see Georgian Poetry.

  1. American Heritage Dictionary, http://www.bartleby.com/61/83/G0098300.html

Βλέπε επίσης[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]


{{United Kingdom topics|state=collapsed}} [[:Category:Georgian era| ]] [[:Category:History of the United Kingdom]] [[:Category:History of the United Kingdom by period]] [[:Category:Historical eras]]


















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Documentation[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

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This is a list of ages of popes.

Hλικίες των παπών[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

[[:Image:BenedictusIX.jpg|thumb|141px|none|Elected between 11 and 18 years of age
Βενέδικτος Θ΄
Πάπας 1032-1044, 1045, 1047-1048
]]
[[:Image:Clement X.jpg|thumb|141px|none|εκλέχθηκε στην ηλικία των 79
Κλήμης Ι΄ (γεννημένος το 1590)
Πάπας από το 1670 έως το 1676
]]
[[:Image:Pope0256c.jpg|thumb|141px|none|Πέθανε στην ηλικία των 93
Λέων ΙΓ΄ (γεννημένος το 1810)
Πάπας από το 1878 έως το 1903
Στατιστικά
Διακύμανση ημερομηνίας Ηλικία κατά την εκλογή Ηλικία κατά τον Θάνατο Έτη που υπηρέτησε ως Πάπας
Μέσος όρος 1700 έως 2005 65 78 13
Μέσος όρος 1503 έως 1700 63 70 7
Μέσος όρος 1503 έως 2005 64 74 10

Οι Νεότεροι πάπες[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Τα δεδομένα να να καθορίσουμε την ηλικία και τις ημερομηνίες γέννησης των νεότερων Παπών είναι συχνά μη διαθέσιμα, καθώς οι Πάπες εκλέγονται γενικά σε μεγαλύτερες ηλικίες στις σύγχρονες εποχές. The youngest Pope was probably either Pope Benedict IX (who became Pope at an unknown age between 11 and 20) or Pope John XII (who was 18 at the beginning of his papacy).

Οι Γηραιότεροι πάπες[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Οι δέκα γηραιότεροι πάπες κατά τηη εκλογή 1503-σήμερα
Πάπας Έτος εκλογής Εκλέχθηκε στην ηλικία Ηλικία κατά τον Θάνατο Έτη που υπηρέτησε ως Πάπας
Πάπας Κλήμης Ι΄ 1670 79 yrs, 290 days 86 6
Αλέξανδρος Η΄ 1689 79 έτη, 177 μέρες 80 1
Παύλος Δ΄ 1555 78 έτη, 330 μέρες 83 4
Κλήμης ΙΒ΄ 1730 78 yrs, 100 days 87 9
Benedict XVI 2005 78 yrs, 3 days - 4
John XXIII 1958 76 yrs, 337 days 81 4
Innocent XII 1691 76 yrs, 124 days 85 9
Benedict XIII 1724 75 yrs, 91 days 81 5
Innocent IX 1591 72 yrs, 104 days 72 0
Innocent X 1644 70 yrs, 151 days 80 10
Ten oldest popes at death 1503-present
Πάπας Έτος εκλογής Εκλέχθηκε σε ηλικία Ηλικία κατά το θάνατο Έτη που υπηρέτησε ως Πάπας
Λέων ΙΓ΄ 1878 67 93 έτη, 140 μέρες 25
Κλήμης ΙΒ΄ 1730 78 87 έτη, 305 μέρες 9
Clement X 1670 79 86 yrs, 9 days 6
Pius IX 1846 54 85 yrs, 270 days 31
Innocent XII 1691 76 85 yrs, 107 days 9
John Paul II 1978 58 84 yrs, 319 days 26
Gregory XIII 1572 70 83 yrs, 92 days 12
Paul IV 1555 78 83 yrs, 51 days 4
Benedict XIV 1740 65 83 yrs, 33 days 17
Benedict XVI 2005 78 16 Απριλίου 1927 (1927-04-16) (92 ετών) (living) 4

[[Κατηγορία:Κατάλογοι Ρωμαιοκαθολικών παπών|Περίοδος εξουσίας]] [[Κατηγορία:κατάλογοι παπών ανά ηλικία|Πάπες]]
















Η Τραπεζούντα, ιστορικά γνωστή ως Tραπεζούς, είναι μια πόλη της ακτής της Μαύρης Θάλασσας της βορειοανατολικής Τουρκίας και η πρωτεύουσα της Επαρχία Τραπεζούντας. Η Τραπεζούντα, βρίσκεται πάνω στον ιστορικό Δρόμο του Μεταξιού, έγινε ένα σημείο σύντηξης θρησκειών, γλωσσών, και πολιτισμού και μια εμπορική πύλη στο Ιράν στα νοτιανατολικά, τη Ρωσία και τον Καύκασο στα βορειοανατολικά. Τhe Venetian and Genoese merchants paid visits to the city and sold silk, linen and woolen fabric. During the Ottoman period, Trabzon, because of the importance of its port, became a focal point of trade to Iran, India and the Caucasus. Trabzon formed the basis of several states in its long history, and was the capital city of the Empire of Trebizond. The population of the city is 400,187 (2006 census).

History[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Ancient and Mediaeval[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Originally, it was founded as Trapezus (Τραπεζοῦς) by Greek traders from Miletus (traditionally in 756 BC).

The city was one of a number (about ten) of Milesian emporia, or trading colonies along the shores of the Black Sea. Others include Sinope, Abydos and Cyzicus (in the Dardanelles). Like most Greek colonies, the city was a small enclave of Greek life, and not an empire unto its own, in the later European sense of the word. Early banking (money-changing) activity is suggested occurring in the city according to a silver drachm coin from Trapezus in the British Museum, London.

Trebizond's trade partners included the Mossynoeci. When Xenophon and the "ten thousand" Greek mercenaries were fighting their way out of Persia, the first Greek city they reached was Trebizond (Xenophon, Anabasis, 5.5.10). The city and the local Mossynoeci had become estranged from the Mossynoecian capital, to the point of civil war. Xenophon's force resolved this in the rebels' favor, and so in Trebizond's interest.

right|thumb|150px|Trapezus coin of 4th century BC in the British Museum

The city was added to the kingdom of Pontus by Mithridates VI Eupator and it became home port for the Pontic fleet. thumb|left|Walls of Trabzon

When the kingdom was annexed to the Roman province of Galatia in 64–65, the fleet passed to new commanders, becoming the Classis Pontica. Trebizond gained importance under Roman rule in the 1st century for its access to road leading over the Zigana Pass to the Armenian frontier or the upper Euphrates valley. New roads were constructed from Persia and Mesopotamia under the rule of Vespasian, and Hadrian commissioned improvements to give the city a more structured harbor. A mithraeum now serves as a crypt for the church of Panaghia Theoskepastos in nearby Kizlara, east of the citadel and south of the modern harbor. The city was pillaged by the Goths in 258, and, although it was afterwards re-built, Trebizond did not recover until the trade route regained importance in the 8th to 10th centuries; 10th century Muslim authors note that Trebizond was frequented by Muslim merchants, as the main source transshipping Byzantine silks into eastern Muslim countries.[1] In Byzantine times, the city was the capital of the theme of Chaldia.

After the Fourth Crusade in 1204, a Byzantine successor state was founded there with support of Queen Tamar of Georgia, the Empire of Trebizond, which ruled part of the Black Sea coast from Trebizond until 1461, when its ruler, David, surrendered to Mehmed II, ruler of the Ottoman Empire. Following this takeover Mehmed sent many Turkish settlers into the area, but the old ethnic Armenian, Greek and Laz communities remained. During the late Ottoman period, the city had a great Christian influence in terms of culture, and a wealthy merchant class who created several Western consulates.

Modern era[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

thumb|right|Uzun Sokak, one of the central streets of Trabzon, at night In 1901 the harbour was equipped with cranes by Stothert and Pitt of Bath in England. The city was the site of one of the key battles between the Ottoman and Russian armies during the Caucasus Campaign of World War I which resulted in the capture of Trebizond by the Russian army under command of Grand Duke Nicholas and Nikolai Yudenich in April 1916. Trabzon was a major Armenian extermination center during the Armenian Genocide, as well as a location of subsequent trials.[2][3][4] The Russian Army retreated from the city and the rest of eastern and northeastern Anatolia with the Russian Revolution of 1917. Following the Turkish War of Independence and the annulment of the Treaty of Sèvres (1920) which was replaced by the Treaty of Lausanne (1923), Trebizond again became a part of Turkey. After World War I, European publications increasingly adopted local names for Turkish cities rather than traditional forms of Greek or Italian origin, and Trebizond became known to English-language readers as Trabzon.

During World War II shipping activity was limited because the Black Sea had again become a war zone. Hence the most important export products, tobacco and hazelnut, could not be sold and living standards degraded.

As a result of the general development of the country, Trabzon has developed its economic and commercial life. The Coastal Highway and a new harbour have increased commercial relations with Central Anatolia, which has led to some growth. However, progress has been slow in comparison with the western and the southwestern parts of Turkey.

Trabzon is famous throughout Turkey for its anchovies, which are the main meal in many restaurants in the city. Major exports from Trabzon are hazelnuts and tea.

The city may still have a small community of Greek-speaking Muslims, most of whom are originally from the vicinities of Tonya and Of. However, the Pontic Greek language (known as Ποντιακά, Pontiaka) is spoken mostly by the older generations.[5]

Geography and climate[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

The province has a total area of 4685 km² and it is bordered by the provinces of Rize, Giresun and Gümüşhane. The total area is 22.4% plateaux and 77.6% hills.

Rivers[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

The Değirmendere (former Piksidis), Yanbolu, Fol, Karadere, Koha, Sürmene (former Manahos), Solaklı, Baltacı and İyidere (former Kalopotamos)

Lakes[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Çakırgöl, Uzungöl, Sera Gölü

Climate[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Trabzon has a typical Black Sea climate, with rain the year round and average maximum temperatures reaching up to around 30°C in the summer. Winters are cool and damp, and the lowest average minimum temperature is around 5°C in January. The water temperature fluctuates between 10° and 20°C throughout the year. {{Infobox Weather <!-- Important: remove all unused fields--> |collapsed=<!--Any entry in this line will make the template initially collapsed. Leave blank or remove line for uncollapsed.--> |metric_first= <!--Any entry in this line will display metric first. Leave blank or remove line for imperial.--> |single_line= <!--Any entry in this line will display metric and imperial units on same line. Leave blank or remove line for separate lines--> |location = Trabzon |Jan_Hi_°C = 10 |Feb_Hi_°C = 10 |Mar_Hi_°C = 11 |Apr_Hi_°C = 15 |May_Hi_°C = 18 |Jun_Hi_°C = 26 |Jul_Hi_°C = 28 |Aug_Hi_°C = 28 |Sep_Hi_°C = 26 |Oct_Hi_°C = 20 |Nov_Hi_°C = 16 |Dec_Hi_°C = 12 |Year_Hi_°C = 17 |Jan_Lo_°C = 5 |Feb_Lo_°C = 5 |Mar_Lo_°C = 6 |Apr_Lo_°C = 9 |May_Lo_°C = 13 |Jun_Lo_°C = 17 |Jul_Lo_°C = 20 |Aug_Lo_°C = 21 |Sep_Lo_°C = 18 |Oct_Lo_°C = 14 |Nov_Lo_°C = 10 |Dec_Lo_°C = 7 |Year_Lo_°C = 12 |source = }}

Κάτοικοι[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Greek has been spoken in the region since early antiquity. The local dialect developed along its own lines and is today partly intelligible to speakers of Standard Greek. It was spoken mainly by a Greek Orthodox population up until the population exchange; nearly all speakers are now Muslim. Laz people, who are the aborigens of this area, also live in Trabzon.

The Chepnis, an Oghuz tribe that played an important role in the history of the Eastern Black Sea area in the 13th and 14th centuries, live in the Şalpazarı (Ağasar valley) region of the Trabzon Province.[6]

There was an Armenian community in Trebizond as early as the 7th century.[7] During the Mongol invasions of the 13th and 14th centuries, numerous Armenian families fled here from Ani.[7] According to Ronald C. Jennings, in the early 1500s, Armenians made up approximately 13 percent[8] of the city's population, and they numbered roughly equal to the Muslims in the city in that period.[9] In the late 19th century the Armenian community was persecuted during the Hamidian massacres.[10][11] Prior to WWI, a sizable Armenian community of 30,000 was present in the city.[7] During the Armenian Genocide, most were killed or deported.[7] Following the Russian capture of Trabzon in April 1916, some 500 Armenian survivors,[7] as well as monks of the local Armenian monastery returned.[12] They remained there till after the war.[7]

Trabzon has a sizeable Russian minority, who began emigrating to the region after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Russian language shops and facilities can be found in the town. Russians are generally subject to stereotypes and suspicion. A subset of Russian women work in the local prostitution industry and are thus derisively known as "Natashas" by Trabzonites.

Because of the presence of Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon hosts students from all over Turkey, especially the East and the Black Sea region, as well as students from Central Asian states.

The city is known as Trapezounda (Τραπεζούντα) in Modern Greek, Trapizon (Տրապիզոն) in Armenian, Trapizoni (ტრაპიზონი) in Georgian, and Tamtra (ტამტრა) in Laz.

Origin of the Pontic Turks and Greeks[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Very little has been written on the Turkification of the area. There are no historical records of any considerable Turkish-speaking groups in the Trabzon area until the late 15th century, with the exception of the Chepnis. The original Greek (and in some regions Armenian) speakers imposed features from their mother language into Turkish. Heath W. Lowry's[13] work about Ottoman tax books[14] (Tahrir Defteri) with Halil İnalcık claims that most Turks of Trabzon city are of Greek origin.

It is possible that the majority of the population of Trabzon and Rize (and other ancient Greek colonies in the Pontus region) — except up to the time of the Chepni Turk immigration waves — consisted of indigenous Caucasian tribes (the Colchians and the Laz) who had been partly Hellenized religiously and linguistically.[15] Michael Meeker stresses the cultural resemblances (e.g. in village structure, house types, and pastoral techniques) between the Eastern Black Sea coast and the areas in the Caucasus proper.[16]

Tourist attractions[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

thumb|right|Hagia Sophia

Trabzon has a number of tourist attractions, some of them dating back to the times of the ancient empires that once existed in the region. In the city itself, one can find a hub of shops, stalls and restaurants surrounding the "Meydan", a square in the center of the city, which includes a tea garden.

  • The Hagia Sophia ({{lang-tr|Ayasofya Müzesi}}), a stunning Byzantine church, is probably the town's most important tourist attraction.
  • Trabzon Castle ruins are visible in the town but cannot be visited as they fall in a military zone. The outside wall of the castle now serves as the back wall of a military building.
  • Atatürk Köşkü is a lovely Victorian-era villa, which was given to Atatürk when he visited Trabzon in 1924. It houses period rooms and acts as a shrine to the memory of the Turks' beloved great leader.
  • Boztepe Park is a small park and tea garden on the hills above Trabzon that has a panoramic view of nearly the entire city. The terrain in Trabzon is such that although the view is far above that of the buildings below, it is still close enough to be able to observe the flow of traffic and the people moving about in the city.
  • Trabzon Museum is located in the town center and offers interesting exhibits on the history of the region, including an impressive collection of Byzantine-era artifacts.
  • Trabzon's Bazaar District offers interesting shopping opportunities on ancient narrow streets, continuing from Kunduracilar Street from the Meydan (town square).
  • Kostaki Mansion is located ob the north of Zeytinlik near Uzun Sokak.

thumb|left|The historic Ortahisar Within Trabzon Province, the main attractions are the Sümela Monastery and Uzungöl. The monastery is built on the side of a very steep mountain overlooking the green forests below and is about 50 km south of the city. Uzungöl is famous for the natural beauty of the area and the amazing scenery.

Other important sites of interest include:[17] Kaymaklı Monastery, Kızlar (Panagia Theoskepastos) Monastery, Kuştul (Gregorios Peristera) Monastery, Kızlar (Panagia Kerameste) Monastery, Vazelon Monastery, Hagios Savvas (Maşatlık) Cave Churches, Hagia Anna (Little Ayvasıl), Sotha (St. John), Hagios Theodoros, Hagios Konstantinos, Hagios Khristophoras, Hagios Kiryaki, Santa Maria, Hagios Mikhail and Panagia Tzita churches, Fatih Mosque (originally the Panagia Khrysokephalos Church), Yeni Cuma Mosque (originally the Hagios Eugenios Church), Nakip Mosque (originally the Hagios Andreas Church), Hüsnü Köktuğ Mosque (originally the Hagios Eleutherios Church), İskender Pasha Mosque, Semerciler Mosque, Çarşı Mosque, and the Gülbahar Hatun Mosque and Türbe.

Culture[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

[[:Image:Trapezunt gospel.jpg|thumb|The 10th century Trebizond Gospel is a testimony to the ancient artistic traditions of the city.]]

Being open towards other cultures and religions plays a significant role in life styles of Trabzon populace. Muslims and Christians lived together in past as well as today, making the city proud heir to a rich cultural heritage. Folklore is still a living tradition in Trabzon and Black Sea region. Known as horon in Trabzon and surrounding areas is a famous folk dance peculiar to the region, and it is performed by men, women, young and elderly people in festivities, local weddings and harvest times.[18] Trabzon culture has a reputation for being religiously conservative and nationalist. Many Trabzonites generally show a strong sense of loyalty to family, friends, their religion, and Turkey.Atatürk selected the presidential guards from neighbour city of Giresun because of their fierce fighting ability and their loyalty.

The Black Sea region has a myriad of village and local folk culture, especially evident in folk music, folk dances, and local cuisine specialties. One of the more spirited folk dances in Turkey comes from the Trabzon region. While similar to Russian Cossack dances, the Trabzon folk dance is unique to Turkey and the region.

Outside of the relatively urban space of Trabzon proper, and within it as well, rural traditions from Black Sea village life are still thriving. This includes traditional gender roles, social conservatism, hospitality and willingness to help strangers, and all the trappings, both positive and negative, of an agrarian lifestyle, such as hard work, poverty, strong family ties, and a closeness to nature.

The city's fame was increased in the English-speaking world by Dame Rose Macaulay's last novel, The Towers of Trebizond (1956), which is still in print.[19]

Cuisine[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Trabzon regional cuisine is traditionally reliant on fish, especially Hamsi (fresh European Anchovy similar to British Sprat or American Smelt). Trabzon, which meets 20% of total fish production in Turkey, has an important potential in the fishing sector in Turkey. Food in the Trabzon region [20] represents the hearty lifestyle of the Turkish people who live on the shores of this Black Sea city. While not a gourmet-food center, there are some delicious regional dishes such as Akcaabat kofte (spicy lamb meatball from the Akcaabat district), Karadeniz pidesi (canoe shaped bread, often with ground beef, cheese, eggs), Sucuk (Turkish sausage and pastirma), kuymak (a Turkish fondue made with cornmeal and plenty of fresh butter and cheese), Vakfikebir ekmek (large country style bread), tava misir ekmek (deep dish corn bread) and kara lahana corbasi (bean and cabbage soup). Don't miss the Taflan kavurmisι (a cherry laurel dish served with onions and olive oil) and Kalkan (Turbot). Trabzon is famous for its hazelnuts and the traveler should experience them in any form. The Turks feel they are exceptionally good for your health. The best way to experience real Trabzon cuisine and culture is to get yourself invited to a local's home.

Sports[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Football is by far the most popular sport in Trabzon, as Trabzonspor is the only Turkish club in Anatolia to win the Turkish Super League (6 times) apart from the "Big Three" of Istanbul (Fenerbahçe, Galatasaray and Beşiktaş). Due to Trabzonspor's success, the decades-old term "Big Three" which defined the largest clubs of Turkey had to be modified into the "Big Four". Trabzonspor is also one of the most successful Turkish clubs in the European Cups, managing to beat numerous prominent teams like Barcelona, Inter, Liverpool, Aston Villa and Olympique Lyonnais.

Trabzon hosted the First Edition of the Black Sea Games in July, 2007 and will host the 2011 European Youth Summer Olympic Festival.

Notable natives[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

International relations[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Twin towns — sister cities[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Trabzon is twinned with:

In fiction[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

[[:Image:Auf der anderen Seite.jpg|thumb|200px|The Black Sea shore at Trabzon shown on the promotional poster of "Edge Of Heaven".]] Several key scenes of Fatih Akın's 2007 film "Edge Of Heaven" take place at Trabzon, and the film's promotional poster shows the film's protagonist standing on the shore at Trabzon and looking out into the Black Sea, into which his father had sailed (see illustration).

See also[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Notes and references[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

  1. R.B. Serjeant, Islamic Textiles: material for a history up to the Mongol conquest, 1972, pp 63, 213, noted by David Jacoby, "Silk Economics and Cross-Cultural Artistic Interaction: Byzantium, the Muslim World, and the Christian West", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 58 (2004:197-240) p. 219 note 112.
  2. Eitan Belkind was a Nili member, who infiltrated the Ottoman army as an official. He was assigned to the headquarters of Camal Pasha. He claims to have witnessed the burning of 5,000 Armenians, quoted in Yair Auron, The Banality of Indifference: Zionism and the Armenian Genocide. New Brunswick, N.J., 2000, pp. 181, 183. Lt. Hasan Maruf, of the Ottoman army, describes how a population of a village were taken all together, and then burned. See, British Foreign Office 371/2781/264888, Appendices B., p. 6). Also, the Commander of the Third Army, Vehib's 12 pages affidavit, which was dated December 5, 1918, presented in the Trabzon trial series (March 29, 1919) included in the Key Indictment (published in Takvimi Vekayi, No. 3540, May 5, 1919), report such a mass burning of the population of an entire village near Mus. S. S. McClure write in his work, Obstacles to Peace, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1917. pp. 400–1, that in Bitlis, Mus and Sassoun, The shortest method for disposing of the women and children concentrated in tile various camps was to burn them. And also that, Turkish prisoners who had apparently witnessed some of these scenes were horrified and maddened at the remembering the sight. They told the Russians that the stench of the burning human flesh permeated the air for many days after. The Germans, Ottoman allies, also witnessed the way Armenians were burned according to the Israeli historian, Bat Ye’or, who writes: The Germans, allies of the Turks in the First World War, …saw how civil populations were shut up in churches and burned, or gathered en masse in camps, tortured to death, and reduced to ashes,… (See: B. Ye'or, The Dhimmi. The Jews and Christians under Islam, Trans. from the French by D. Maisel P. Fenton and D. Liftman, Cranbury, N.J.: Frairleigh Dickinson University, 1985. p. 95)
  3. During the Trabzon trial series, of the Martial court (from the sittings between March 26 and May 17, 1919), the Trabzons Health Services Inspector Dr. Ziya Fuad wrote in a report that Dr. Saib, caused the death of children with the injection of morphine, the information was allegedly provided by two physicians (Drs. Ragib and Vehib), both Dr. Saib colleagues at Trabzons Red Crescent hospital, where those atrocities were said to have been committed. (See: Vahakn N. Dadrian, The Turkish Military Tribunal’s Prosecution of the Authors of the Armenian Genocide: Four Major Court-Martial Series, Genocide Study Project, H. F. Guggenheim Foundation, published in The Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Volume 11, Number 1, Spring 1997). Dr. Ziya Fuad, and Dr. Adnan, public health services director of Trabzon, submitted affidavits, reporting a cases, in which, two school buildings were used to organize children and then sent them on the mezzanine, to kill them with a toxic gas equipment. This case was presented during the Session 3, p.m., 1 April 1919, also published in the Constantinople newspaper Renaissance, 27 April 1919 (for more information, see: Vahakn N. Dadrian, The Role of Turkish Physicians in the World War I Genocide of Ottoman Armenians, in The Holocaust and Genocide Studies 1, no. 2 (1986): 169–192). The Ottoman surgeon, Dr. Haydar Cemal wrote in Türkce Istanbul, No. 45, 23 December 1918, also published in Renaissance, 26 December 1918, that on the order of the Chief Sanitation Office of the IIIrd Army in January 1916, when the spread of typhus was an acute problem, innocent Armenians slated for deportation at Erzican were inoculated with the blood of typhoid fever patients without rendering that blood ‘inactive’. Jeremy Hugh Baron writes : Individual doctors were directly involved in the massacres, having poisoned infants, killed children and issued false certificates of death from natural causes. Nazim's brother-in-law Dr. Tevfik Rushdu, Inspector-General of Health Services, organized the disposal of Armenian corpses with thousands of kilos of lime over six months; he became foreign secretary from 1925 to 1938. (See: Jeremy Hugh Baron, Genocidal Doctors, publish in Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, November, 1999, 92, pp. 590–3). The psychiatrist, Robert Jay Lifton, writes in a parenthesis when introducing the crimes of NAZI doctors in his book Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide, Basic Books, (1986) p. xii: (Perhaps Turkish doctors, in their participation in the genocide against the Armenians, come closest, as I shall later suggest). and drowning.
  4. Oscar S. Heizer, the American consul at Trabzon, reports: This plan did not suit Nail Bey…. Many of the children were loaded into boats and taken out to sea and thrown overboard. (See: U.S. National Archives. R.G. 59. 867. 4016/411. April 11, 1919 report.) The Italian consul of Trabzon in 1915, Giacomo Gorrini, writes: I saw thousands of innocent women and children placed on boats which were capsized in the Black Sea. (See: Toronto Globe, August 26, 1915) Hoffman Philip, the American Charge at Constantinople chargé d'affaires, writes: Boat loads sent from Zor down the river arrived at Ana, one thirty miles away, with three fifths of passengers missing. (Cipher telegram, July 12, 1916. U.S. National Archives, R.G. 59.867.48/356.) The Trabzon trials reported Armenians having been drown in the Black Sea. (Takvimi Vekdyi, No. 3616, August 6, 1919, p. 2.)
  5. Trabzon Greek: A language without a tongue, Ömer Asan
  6. Bernt Brendemoen, The Turkish dialects of Trabzon, University of Oslo, 2002 p18
  7. 7,0 7,1 7,2 7,3 7,4 7,5 *Ambart︠s︡umi︠a︡n, Victor Amazaspovich; Abel Poghosi Simonyan; Makich‘ Vahani Arzumanyan, (1986) (στα Armenian). Haykakan sovetakan hanragitaran ("Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia"). 12. Yerevan, σσ. 87. {{oclc|10431241}}. 
  8. 15.5% of 85%
  9. Jennings, Ronald C. (Jan. 1976) Urban Population in Anatolia in the 16th Century: International Journal of MiddleEast Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1 pp. 21-57.
  10. Hundreds killed at Trebizond; Soldiers joined the mob in looting and in firing on Armenians, New York Times, October 18, 1895
  11. Moslems desperate, New York Times, November 3, 1895
  12. The Byzantine Churches of Trebizond, Selina Ballance, Anatolian Studies, volume 10, page 169.
  13. Professor. Department of Near Eastern Studies. Princeton University
  14. Trabzon Şehrinin İslamlaşması ve Türkleşmesi 1461–1583 ISBN 975-518-116-4
  15. Michael Meeker, "The Black Sea Turks: some aspects of their ethnic and cultural background", International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies (1971) 2:318–345
  16. Meeker, 1971: p. 326 "As the mentioned, the villages along the Black Sea coast from Ordu to Artvin are composed of many hamlets, each dominating a hilltop or mountain side on which its own crops are separately planted. This type of settlement pattern is in sharp contrast with the typical nucleated Anatolian village, but its characteristic of many rural settlements of the Western Caucasus notably those of Abkhaz, Circassians, Georgians, Mingrelians and Ossetes…"
    For similar ideas See: Karl Koch, Reise duch Russland nach dem Kaukasis chen Istmus in den Jahren, 1836. vol1. p. 378; W.E.D. Allen, A History of the Georgian People, London 1932. pp. 54–5; Özhan Öztürk, Karadeniz. 2005. p. 35, 757–68. For linguistic influence see: Bernt Brendomoen, Laz influence on the Black Sea Turkish Dialects, 1990 (Proceedings from 32nd meeting of the Permanent International Altaistic Conference)
  17. Karalahana.com
  18. People and culture of Trabzon and Black sea region
  19. Macaulay, Rose: The Towers of Trebizond (Collins, London, 1956)
  20. Traditional foods of Black Sea region
  21. Eğrikavuk, Işıl (2009-08-21). «Portrait of A Lady as a non-conformist». Hürriyet Daily News and Economic Review. http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/n.php?n=portrait-of-a-lady-as-a-non-conformist-2009-08-20. Ανακτήθηκε στις 2009-09-01. 
  • Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites eds. Richard Stillwell, William L. MacDonald, Marian Holland McAllister: "Trapezus"
  • Özhan Öztürk (2005). Karadeniz (Black Sea): Ansiklopedik Sözlük. 2 Cilt. Heyamola Yayıncılık. İstanbul. ISBN 975-6121-00-9
  • Bryer, Anthony (1985-03). Byzantine Monuments and Topography of the Pontos (Dumbarton Oaks Studies,20) Two Volume Set. Dumbarton Oaks Pub Service. ISBN 088402122X.  Unknown parameter |coauthor= ignored (|author= suggested) (βοήθεια); Ελέγξτε τις τιμές ημερομηνίας στο: |date= (βοήθεια)
  • CSMonitor.com
  • New York Times

External links[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

{{coord|41|00|N|39|44|E|region:TR_type:city|display=title}} {{Districts of Turkey|provname=Trabzon}} [[:Category:Trabzon| ]] [[:Category:Ancient Greek sites in Turkey]] [[:Category:Roman towns and cities in Turkey]] [[:Category:Empire of Trebizond]] [[:Category:Armenian Genocide extermination centers]] [[:Category:Black Sea port cities and towns in Turkey]] [[:Category:Greek colonies in Pontus]]















{{Πρώην μοναρχία | βασιλικός_τίτλος = Αυτοκράτορας | βασίλειο = Ανατολικής Ρωμαϊκής Αυτοκρατορίας | έμβλημα = Palaiologos-Dynasty-Eagle.svg | έμβλημαμέγεθος = | έμβλημαλεζάντα = | λεζάντα = | πρώτος_μονάρχης = | τελευταίος_μονάρχης = | επίδοξος_διάδοχος = [[Θεόδωρος Β΄ Παλαιολόγος, Κύριος του Μορέα|Θεόδωρος]] | εικόνα = ConstantinoXI.jpg | τελευταίος_μονάρχης = [[Κωνσταντίνος ΙΑ' Παλαιολόγος|Κωνσταντίνος ΙΑ΄]] | αυτού/αυτής = Αυτού Αυτοκρατορική | πρώτος_μονάρχης = [[Κωνσταντίνος Α΄]] | άρχισε = 330 | έληξε = 1453 | προσφώνηση = | κατοικία = | καθοριστής = | διεκδικητής = }} {{Infobox former monarchy |border = imperial | royal_title = Emperor | realm = Eastern Roman Empire | coatofarms = Palaiologos-Dynasty-Eagle.svg | coatofarmscaption = | type = commonwealth | heir_apparent = [[Theodore II Palaiologos, Lord of Morea|Theodore]] | image = ConstantinoXI.jpg | last_monarch = [[Constantine XI Palaiologos|Constantine XI]] | his/her = His Imperial | first_monarch = [[Constantine I]] | began = 330 | ended = 1453 }}

This is a list of the Emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire, commonly known as the Byzantine Empire by modern historians. This list does not include numerous co-emperors who never attained sole or senior status as rulers.

This list begins with Constantine I the Great, the first Christian emperor reigning from Constantinople. Diocletian before him had ruled from Nicomedia and replaced the republican trappings of the office with a straightforward autocracy. All Byzantine Emperors regarded themselves as Roman Emperors.[1]

Although the Catholic West recognized the Eastern Empire's claim to the Roman legacy for several centuries, on 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned King of Franks Charlemagne as the "Roman Emperor (which eventually led to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire) due to uneasy relations with the Orthodox East, an act which was considered as a disgrace by the Byzantines.

The title of all Emperors listed preceding Heraclius was officially Augustus, although various other titles such as Dominus were used as well. For official purposes, their names were preceded by Imperator Caesar and followed by Augustus. Following Heraclius, the title commonly became the Greek Basileus (Gr. Βασιλεύς), which had formerly meant generally "king", "sovereign" but now was used in place of Imperator. Following the establishment of a rival Empire in Western Europe (the Holy Roman Empire), the title Autokrator (Gr. Αυτοκράτωρ) was also increasingly used. Foreign kings were now titled by the neologism Regas (Gr. Ρήγας, from the Lat. "Rex") or by another generic term Archon (Gr. Άρχων, "ruler"). In the later centuries of the Empire, the emperor could be often referred to by Western Christians as the "Emperor of the Greeks," though they still considered themselves "Roman" Emperors. Towards the end of the Empire, they referred to themselves as "[Emperor's name] in Christ true Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans."

For previous Emperors, see List of Roman Emperors

Constantinian dynasty (306-363)[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Εικόνα Όνομα Θέση στη Δυναστεία Γέννηση Αυτοκράτορας από Αυτοκράτορας έως Θάνατος
80px Κωνσταντίνος Α΄ "the Great"
(Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus)
γιος του Αυγούστου Κωνστάντιου Χλωρού 27 Φεβρουαρίου περ.280 25 Ιουλίου 306
Διακηρύχθηκε "Αύγουστος" κατά τον θάνατοτου Κωνστάντιου Χλωρού
22 Mαΐου 337
80px Κωνστάντιος Β'
(Flavius Iulius Constantius)
δεύτερος γιος του Κωνσταντίνου Α 7 Aυγούστου 317 22 Mαΐου 337
Κληρονόμησε το Ανατολικό τρίτο της Ρωμαϊκής Αυτοκρατορίας με το θάνα το του πατέρα του
5 October 361
died of illness on campaign
80px Julian "the Apostate"
(Flavius Claudius Iulianus)
grandson of Constantius Chlorus, cousin of Constantius II May 332 5 October 361
Proclaimed by his army in Gaul, became legitimate Emperor upon the death of Constantius
28 June 363
Mortally wounded in battle

Μη μέλη της δυναστείας (363-364)[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Εικόνα Όνομα Θέση Γέννηση Αυτοκράτορας από Αυτοκράτορας έως Θάνατος
80px Ιοβιανός
( Flavius Claudius Iovianus )
Guards' Captain amongst Julian's Eastern forces c.332 28 June 363
Elected by the army upon Julian's death
17 Φεβρουαρίου 364
Died on journey back to Constantinople

Βαλεντιανή-Θεοδοσιανή δυναστεία (364-457)[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Εικόνα Όνομα Θλεση στη Δυναστεία Γέννηση Emperor from Emperor until Θάνατος
80px Βαλεντινιανός Α΄
(Flavius Valentinianus)
Officer under Julian and Jovian 321 26 Φεβρουαρίου 364
Elected by the army upon Jovian's death
17 Noεμβρίου 375
Died of cerebral haemorrhage
80px Ουάλης
( Flavius Iulius Valens )
Minor soldier of the Roman army, brother of Valentinian I 328 28 Mαρτίου 364
Appointed by his brother
9 August 378
Killed at the Battle of Adrianople
80px Γρατιανός
( Flavius Gratianus )
Son of Valentinian I, nephew of Valens 18 April/23 May 359 9 August 378
Inherited rule of the East upon the death of Valens
19 January 379
Appointed Theodosius I as Emperor of the East
25 August 383
Assassinated during the rebellion of Magnus Maximus
80px Θεοδόσιος Α΄
"ο Μεγάλος"
( Flavius Theodosius )
Aristocrat and military leader, brother-in-law of Gratian 11 January 347 19 January 379
Appointed by Gratian
17 January 395
old age
80px Αρκάδιος
( Flavius Arcadius )
Son of Theodosius I 377/378 17 Ιανουαρίου 395
Upon the death of Theodosius I
1 Mαΐου 408
80px Πουλχερία
( Aelia Pulcheria )
Daughter of Arcadius, sister of Theodosius II 19 January 399 28 Ιουλίου 450
Upon the death of Theodosius II
Ιούλιος 453
80px Μαρκιανός
( Flavius Marcianus )
Soldier, politician, husband of Pulcheria 396 450
Upon his marriage to Pulcheria
Ιανουάριος 457
Gangrene contracted on a journey

Δυναστεία των Λεοντιδών (457-518)[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Εικόνα Όνομα Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
80px Λέων Α΄ "Ο Θράκας"
(Flavius Valerius Leo )
Στρατιώτης 401 7 Φεβρουαρίου 457
Chosen by Aspar, commander-in-chief of the army
18 Ιανουαρίου 474
Πέθανε από δυσεντερία
80px Leo II
( Flavius Leo )
Grandson of Leo I 467 18 January 474
Succeeded his grandfather Leo I
17 November 474
Died of an unknown disease, possibly poisoned
80px Zeno
( Flavius Zeno )
(Born Tarasicodissa)
Roman general of Isaurian origins; son-in-law of Leo I, father of Leo II c.425 Co-emperor: 9 February 474
Appointed by his son Leo II
Sole Emperor: 17 November 474
Succeeded upon the death of Leo II
9 January 475
Deposed by Basiliscus, brother-in-law of Leo I
9 April 491
80px Βασιλίσκος
( Flavius Basiliscus )
Army General; brother-in-law of Leo I 9 January 475
Seized power from Zeno
Aύγουστος 476
Deposed by Zeno
476/477
80px Zeno, restored
( Flavius Zeno )
(Born Tarasicodissa)
Roman general of Isaurian origins; son-in-law of Leo I, father of Leo II c.425 restored August 476
Having deposed Basiliscus
9 April 491
80px Αναστάσιος Α΄
( Flavius Anastasius )
Palace official ("Silentiarius"); son-in-law of Leo I c.430 11 April 491
Chosen by Ariadne, widow of Zeno
9 July 518

Δυναστεία του Ιουστινιανού (518-602)[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Εικόνα Όνομα Status Γέννηση Emperor from Emperor until Θάνατος
80px Ιουστίνος Α΄
(Flavius Iustinus )
General, commander of the City Guards under Anastasius I περ.450 Ιούλιος 518
Elected by army and people upon the death of Anastasius I
1 Αυγούστου 527
80px Justinian I
(Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus)
Nephew and heir of Justin I 482/483 1 August 527
Inherited the throne on the death of Justin I
13/14 November 565
80px Justin II
(Flavius Iustinus Iunior)
Nephew and heir of Justinian I c.520 14 November 565
Inherited the throne on the death of Justinian I
5 October 578
80px Tiberius II Constantine
(Flavius Tiberius Constantinus)
"Comes" of the Excubitors, friend and adoptive son of Justin II c.520 5 October 578
Became full Emperor on the death of Justin II
14 August 582
possibly poisoned by Maurice
80px Maurice
(Flavius Mauricius Tiberius)
Commander-in-chief of Cappadocian origins; son-in-law of Tiberius II 539 14 August 582
Succeeded upon the death of his father-in-law Tiberius II
November 602
Forced to abdicate by Phocas
27 November 602
Executed by Phocas

Μη δυναστικός (602-610)[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Εικόνα Όνομα Θέση Γέννηση Αυτοκράτορας από Emperor until Death
80px Φωκάς
(Flavius Phocas )
sub-altern in the Balkan army, leader of rebellion; deposed Maurice ? November 602
Seized power in a rebellion against Maurice
610
Executed by Heraclius

Δυναστεία του Ηρακλείου (610-711)[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Εικόνα Όνομα Status Γέννηση Emperor from Emperor until Death
80px Ηράκλειος
Heraclius (Flavius Heraclius)
son of Exarch Heraclius the Elder; deposed Phocas c.575 5 October 610
Seized power in a rebellion εναντίον του Φωκά
11 February 641
80px Constantine III
(Ηράκλειος (νέος) Κωνσταντίνος, Herakleios Novos Kōnstantinos) Constantine III ( Heraclius Novus Constantinus )
eldest son of Herakleios 3 May 612 11 February 641
Succeeded to throne with Heraklonas following death of Herakleios
24/26 May 641
Tuberculosis, allegedly poisoned by Martina
80px Heraklonas
(Κωνσταντίνος Ηράκλειος, Kōnstantinos Herakleios) Heraclianus (Constantinus Heraclius)
younger son of Herakleios 626 11 February 641
Succeeded to throne with Constantine III following death of Herakleios
September 641
Deposed by Senate
c.641
Presumed to have died in exile
Constans II
(Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II);
born Herakleios Constantine
(Ηράκλειος Κωνσταντίνος, Herakleios Kōnstantinos );
called "Constantine the Bearded" (Κωνσταντίνος Πωγωνάτος, Kōnstantinos Pogonatos) Constans II
(Constantus II);
born Heraclius Constantine
( Heraclius Constantinus );
called "Constantine the Bearded"
son of Constantine III 7 November 630 641
Made co-Emperor by Hereklonas, sole emperor in that same year
15 September 668
Assassinated, possibly on the orders of Mezezius
Mezezius Usurper Emperor Unknown 668 669
Κωνσταντίνος Δ' son of Constans II 652 15 September 668
succeeded following murder of Constans II
September 685
Died of dysentery
80px Justinian II son of Constantine IV 669 Co-emperor in 681, sole emperor in 685. 695
Deposed by military revolt
December 711
80px Λεόντιος Usurper Emperor Unknown 695 698
Deposed by military revolt
705
Tiberios III Usurper Emperor Unknown 698 705
Deposed by a Bulgarian-supported revolt
705
80px Justinian II son of Constantine IV 669 705 711
Deposed by military revolt
December 711

Non-dynastic (711-717)[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Εικόνα Όνομα Θέση Γέννηση Αυτοκράτορας από Emperor until Θάνατος
80px Φιλιππικός Βαρδάνης Ένας στρατηγός Αρμενικής καταγωγής• εκθρόνισε τον Ιουστινιανό Β΄ Άγνωστη Δεκέμβριος 711 3 Ιουνίου 713
Εκθρονίσθηκε από μια στρατιωτική εξέγερση
Αργότερα τον 8ο αιώνα
80px Anastasios II a bureaucraut, imperial secretary for Philippikos Unknown June 713 November 715
Deposed by a military revolt
718
80px Theodosios III a financial officer, tax collector in the Opsikian Theme Unknown May 715 25 March 717
Deposed by a military revolt
Later in the 8th century

Δυναστεία των Ισαύρων (717-802)[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Εικόνα Όνομα Status Γέννηση Αυτοκράτορας από Emperor until Death
80px Λέων Γ΄ ο Ίσαυρος a general from Germanikeia, Commagene περ. 685 25 Mαρτίου 717 18 Ιουνίου 741 18 Ιουνίου 741
80px Κωνσταντίνος Ε΄ Γιος του Λέοντα Γ΄ Ιούλιος 718 Συγκυβερνήτης το 720, ανώτερος κυβερνήτης το 741 14 Σεπτεμβρίου 775 14 Σεπτεμβρίου 775
Αρτάβασδος Son-in-law of Leo III, brother-in-law of Constantine V Άγνωστη Rival emperor from June 741/2 2 November 743 Later in the 8th century
80px Λέων Δ΄ο Χάζαρος Γιος του Κωνσταντίνου Ε΄ 25 Ιανουαρίου 750 Co-ruler in 751, senior ruler in 775 8 Σεπτεμβρίου 780 8 Σεπτεμβρίου 780
80px Κωνσταντίνος ΣΤ΄ Son of Leo IV and Irene 771 Co-ruler in 776, sole emperor in 780 Aύγουστος 797 περ. 797, though sources are contradictory on the subject
80px Ειρήνη η Αθηναία Σύζυγος του Λέοντα Δ΄, μητέρα του Κωνσταντίνου ΣΤ΄ περ. 752 Aύγουστος 797 31 Oκτωβρίου 802 9 Αυγούστου 803

Nikephoros' dynasty (802-813)[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Εικόνα Όνομα Θέση Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
80px Νικηφόρος Α' λογοθέτης του γενικού (υπουργός οικονομικών) Άγνωστο 31 Οκτωβρίου 802 26 Ιουλίου 811 26 Ιουλίου 811
80px Σταυράκιος Γιος του Νικηφόρου Α' Άγνωστος Συγκυβερνήτης το 803, senior ruler in 811 2 Οκτωβρίου 811 11 Ιανουαρίου 812
80px Μιχαήλ Α' Son-in-law of Nikephoros I, brother-in-law of Staurakios Unknown 2 October 811 11 July 813 11 January 844

Non-dynastic (813-820)[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
80px Leo V the Armenian Strategos of the Anatolic theme c. 775 11 July 813 25 December 820 25 December 820

Φρυγιανή Δυναστεία (820-867)[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Εικόνα Όνομα Θέση Γέννηση Αυτοκράτορας από Αυτοκράτορας έως Θάνατος
80px Μιχαήλ Β΄ (Μιχαήλ Β' ο Τραυλός ή Ψελλός) Στρατηγός, γαμπρός του Κωνσταντίνου ΣΤ΄ 770 25 Δεκεμβρίου 820
2 Oκτωβρίου 829
80px Θεόφιλος γιος του Μιχαήλ Β΄ 813 2 Oκτωβρίου 829
20 Ιανουαρίου 842
80px Θεοδώρα (Θεοδώρα) σύζυγος του Θεοφίλου c. 815 842
855 867
80px Μιχαήλ Γ΄ ο Μέθυσος γιος του Θεόφιλου 19 Ιανουαρίου 840 842
23 Σεπτεμβρίου 867

Mακεδονική δυναστεία (867-1056)[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Εικόνα Όνομα Θέση Γέννηση Αυτοκράτορας από Αυτοκράτορας έως Θάνατος
Alexanderemp.jpg Βασίλειος Α΄ ο Μακεδόνας παντεύθηκε την ερωμένη του Μιχαήλ Γ΄ περ. 811 867
2 Αυγούστου 886
Follis-Leo VI-sb1729.jpg Λέων ΣΤ΄ ο Σοφός (Λέων ΣΤ' ο Σοφός) πιθανώς είτε γιος του Βασιλείου Α΄
ή του Μιχαήλ Γ΄ ||align="center"|19 Σεπτεμβρίου 866||align="center"| 886
||align="center" colspan=2|11 Mαΐου 912
Alexanderemp.jpg Αλέξανδρος (Αλέξανδρος Γ') γιος του Βασιλείου Α΄• αντιβασιλιάς για τον ανιψιό του 870 912
913
Follis-Constantine VII and Zoe-sb1758.jpg Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ Πορφυρογέννητος (Κωνσταντίνος Ζ' ο Πορφυρογέννητος) son of Leo VI 9 Σεπτεμβρίου 905 15 May 908
9 Νοεμβρίου 959
Romanus1.jpg Ρωμανός Α΄ Λεκαπηνός (Ρωμανός Α' ο Λεκαπηνός) πεθερός του Κωνσταντίνου Ζ΄ περ. 870 17 Δεκεμβρίου 920
16 Δεκεμβρίου 944 15 Ιουνίου 948
Death of romanus ii.jpg Ρωμανός Β΄ Πορφυρογέννητος (Ρωμανός Β' ο Πορφυρογέννητος) γιος του Κωνσταντίνου Ζ΄ 15 Mαρτίου 938 Noέμβριος 959
15 Mαρτίου 963
Nikiphoros Phokas.jpg Nikephoros II Phokas (Νικηφόρος Β' ο Φωκάς) married Theophano, Romanos II's widow, regent for Basil II c. 912 16 August 963
969
Histamenon nomisma-John I-sb1776.jpg Ιωάννης Α΄ Τζιμισκής (Ιωάννης Α' Κουρκούας ο Τσιμισκής) κουνιάδος του Ρωμανού Β΄ περ. 925 11 Δεκεμβρίου 969
10 Ιανουαρίου 976
Basilios II.jpg Βασίλειος Β΄ ο Βουλγαροκτόνος γιος του Ρωμανού Β΄ 958 10 Ιανουαρίου 976
15 Δεκεμβρίου 1025
Histamenon nomisma-Constantine VIII-sb1776.jpg Κωνσταντίνος Η΄ ( ο Πορφυρογέννητος) son of Romanos II 960 15 Δεκεμβρίου 1025
15 Noεμβρίου 1028
EmpZoe.jpg Ζωή (Ζωή η Προφυρογέννητη) κόρη του Κωνσταντίνου Η΄ c. 978 15 Νοεμβρίου 1028
Ιούνιος 1050
80px Ρωμανός Γ΄ Αργυρός (Ρωμανός Γ' ο Αργυρός) πρώτος σύζυγος της Ζωής 968 15 Noεμβρίου 1028
11 Aπριλίου 1034
Μιχαήλ Δ΄ο Παφλαγόνας (Μιχαήλ Δ' ο Παφλαγών) Zoe's second husband 1010 11 Aπριλίου 1034
10 Δεκεμβρίου 1041
80px Μιχαήλ Ε΄ ο Καλαφάτης (Μιχαήλ Ε' ο Καλαφάτης) ανιψιός του Μιχαήλ Δ΄ 1015 10 Δεκεμβρίου 1041
20 Aπριλίου 1042 24 Aυγούστου 1042
80px Θεοδώρα (Θεοδώρα) κόρη του Κωνσταντίνου Η΄ 984 20 Aπριλίου 1042
1042 μετά τις 31 Aυγούστου 1056
80px Κωνσταντίνος Θ΄ Μονομάχος (Κωνσταντίνος Θ' ο Μονομάχος) τρίτος σύζυγος της Ζωής περ. 1000 11 Ιουνίου 1042
11 Ιανουαρίου 1055
80px Θεοδλωρα (Θεοδώρα) κόρη του Κωνσταντίνου Η΄ 984 11 Ιανουαρίου 1055
μετά τις 31 Aυγούστου 1056

Non-dynastic (1056-1057)[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
Michael VI Court bureaucrat, defence minister Unknown September, 1056 31 August 1057 c. 1059

Komnenid dynasty (1057-1059)[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
80px Isaac I Komnenos commander of the field army in Anatolia c. 1005 5 June 1057 as rival emperor, sole emperor since 31 August 1057 22 November 1059 c. 1061

Doukid dynasty (1059-1081)[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Εικόνα Όνομα Θέση Γέννηση Emperor from Emperor until Death
80px Κωνσταντίνος Ι' (Κωνσταντίνος Ι' ο Δούκας) 1006 24 Noεμβρίου 1059
22 May 1067
80px Michael VII Doukas Quarter-short (Μιχαήλ Ζ' Δούκας Παραπινάκης) son of Constantine X 1050 22 May 1067
24 March 1078 1090
80px Romanos IV Diogenes (Ρωμανός Δ' Διογένης) married Eudokia Makrembolitissa, Constantine X's widow 1032 1067
1071 1072
80px Nikephoros III Botaneiates (Νικηφόρος Γ' Βοτανειάτης) Strategos claiming descent from the Fabii 1001 31 March 1078
10 December 1081

Komnenid dynasty (1081-1185)[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Εικόνα Όνομα Status Γέννηση Emperor from Emperor until Θάνατος
80px Αλέξιος Α΄ Κομνηνός (Αλέξιος Α' Κομνηνός) Ανιψιός του Ισαάκ Α΄, military commander 1048 4 Aπριλίου 1081
15 Aυγούστου 1118
80px Ιωάννης Β΄ Κομνηνός (Ιωάννης Β' Κομνηνός o Καλός) son of Alexios I 13 September 1087 1118 8 April 1143
80px Manuel I Komnenos (Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός ο Μέγας) son of John II 28 November 1118 1143 24 September 1180
Alexios II Komnenos (Αλέξιος B' Κομνηνός) son of Manuel I 14 September 1169 1180 October 1183
80px Andronikos I Komnenos (Ανδρόνικος Α' Κομνηνός) nephew of John II c. 1118 1183 2 September 1185

Angelid dynasty (1185-1204)[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
80px Isaac II Angelos (Ισαάκιος Β' Άγγελος) great-grandson of Alexios I September 1156 1185
1195 January 1205
Alexios III Angelos (Αλέξιος Γ' Άγγελος) brother of Isaac II 1153 1195
1203 1211
80px Isaac II Angelos (Ισαάκιος Β' Άγγελος) great-grandson of Alexios I September 1156 1203
1204 January 1205
80px Alexios IV Angelos (Αλέξιος Δ' Άγγελος) son of Isaac II 1182 1203 1204
Nikolaos Kanabos (Νικόλαος Καναβός) 25 January 1204 5 February 1205
80px Alexios V Doukas (Αλέξιος Ε' Δούκας) son-in-law of Alexios III 1140 5 February 1204 12 April 1204 December 1205

Laskarid dynasty (Empire of Nicaea, 1204-1261)[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
Constantine Laskaris Defender of Constantinople Unknown Claimant emperor in 1204 c. 1205 c. 1205
Theodore I Laskaris Brother of Constantine Laskaris, son-in-law of Alexios III c. 1174 proclaimed 1205, crowned 1208 1221 1221
80px John III Doukas Vatatzes son-in-law of Theodore I c. 1192 December, 1221 3 November 1254 3 November 1254
Theodore II Laskaris son of John III, grandson of Theodore I 1221/1222 proclaimed 4 November 1254 crowned 1255 18 August 1258 18 August 1258
John IV Laskaris son of Theodore II 25 December 1250 18 August 1258 25 December 1261 c. 1305

Palaiologan Dynasty (restored to Constantinople, 1261-1453)[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
80px Michael VIII Palaiologos Great-grandson of Alexios III, grandnephew of John III by marriage 1223 1 January 1259 as co-emperor, senior emperor since 25 December 1261 11 December 1282 11 December 1282
80px Andronikos II Palaiologos Son of Michael VIII 25 March 1259 nominal co-emperor in September, 1261, crowned in 1272. Senior emperor on 11 December 1282 24 May 1328 13 February 1332
80px Michael IX Palaiologos Son of Andronikos II 17 April 1277 co-emperor in 1281, crowned in 1294/1295. 12 October 1320 12 October 1320
80px Andronikos III Palaiologos Son of Michael IX 25 March 1297 co-emperor in 1316, rival emperor since July, 1321. Senior emperor on 24 May 1328. 15 June 1341 15 June 1341
80px John V Palaiologos Son of Andronikos III 18 June 1332 Emperor in 15 June 1341 8 February 1347 16 February 1391
80px John VI Kantakouzenos A maternal relative of the Palaiologoi c. 1292 rival emperor on 26 October 1341, senior emperor on 8 February 1347. 4 December 1354 15 June 1383
Matthew Kantakouzenos Son of John VI, brother-in-law of John V c. 1325 co-emperor on 15 April 1353, rival emperor since 4 December 1354. December, 1357 between 1383 and 1391
80px John V Palaiologos Son of Andronikos III, son-in-law of John VI 18 June 1332 co-emperor in 1347, rival emperor in 1352. Senior Emperor on 4 December 1354 12 August 1376 16 February 1391
Andronikos IV Palaiologos Son of John V, grandson of John VI 2 April 1348 co-emperor c. 1352, Senior Emperor on 12 August 1376 1 July 1379 28 June 1385
80px John V Palaiologos Son of Andronikos III, son-in-law of John VI 18 June 1332 Senior Emperor on 1 July 1379 14 April 1390 16 February 1391
John VII Palaiologos Son of Andronikos IV 1370 Co-emperor from 1376 to 1379, senior emperor on 14 April 1390. 17 September 1390 22 September 1408
80px John V Palaiologos Son of Andronikos III, son-in-law of John VI 18 June 1332 Senior Emperor on 17 September 1390 16 February 1391 16 February 1391
80px Manuel II Palaiologos Son of John V, grandson of John VI, brother of Andronikos IV 27 June 1350 Co-emperor in 1373, Senior Emperor on 16 February 1391 21 July 1425 21 July 1425
Andronikos V Palaiologos Son of John VII c. 1400 co-emperor c. 1403 c. 1407 c. 1407
80px John VIII Palaiologos Son of Manuel II 18 December 1392 Co-emperor c. 1416, sole emperor on 21 July 1425 31 October 1448 31 October 1448
80px Constantine XI Son of Manuel II, brother of John VIII 8 February 1405 6 January 1449 29 May 1453 29 May 1453

Palaiologan Dynasty (claimants in exile)[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
Demetrios Palaiologos Son of Manuel II, brother of John VIII and Constantine XI c. 1407 1453 1460 1470
80px Thomas Palaiologos Son of Manuel II, brother of John VIII and Constantine XI c. 1409 1453 12 May 1465 12 May 1465
Andreas Palaiologos Son of Thomas c. 1453 12 May 1465 1502 1502

See also[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

References[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

  1. Hooker, Richard. "The Byzantine Empire." Middle Ages. World Cultures. 4 June 2007 [1].

{{Epochs of Roman Emperors}} [[:Category:Byzantine emperors| ]] [[:Category:Lists of monarchs|Byzantine Empire]] [[:Category:Ancient Roman titles]]




Τα Βορικά οξέα (Boric acids ή Borates) στη χημεία είναι χημικές ενώσειςπου περιέχουν οξυάνια του βορίου, με το βόριο σε with boron in αριθμό οξείδωσης +3. Το απλούστερο ιόν βορατίου είναι το The simplest borate ion is the trigonal planar, BO33−, although many others are known.[1] BO33− forms salts with metallic elements. Boron found in nature is commonly as a borate mineral. Boron is also found combined with silicate to form complex borosilicate minerals such as the tourmalines. Many borates are readily hydrated and contain structural hydroxide groups and should formally be considered as hydroxoborates.

Aqueous chemistry[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

In aqueous solution borate exists in many forms. In acid and near-neutral conditions, it is boric acid, commonly written as H3BO3 but more correctly B(OH)3. The pKa of boric acid is 9.14 at 25°C. Boric acid does not dissociate in aqueous solution, but is acidic due to its interaction with water molecules, forming tetrahydroxyborate:

B(OH)3 + H2O {{eqm}} B(OH){{su|b=4|p=−}} + H+
Ka = 5.8x10−10 mol/l; pKa = 9.24.

Polymeric anions containing structural OH units (polyhydroxoborates) are formed at pH 7–10 if the boron concentration is higher than about 0.025 mol/L. The best known of these is the ion found in the mineral borax:

4 B(OH){{su|b=4|p=−}} + 2 H+ {{eqm}} B4O5(OH){{su|b=4|p=2−}} + 7 H2O

Even though boric acid adds hydroxide to form B(OH){{su|b=4|p=−}}, the fictitious ions are easier to use for pKa values and other calculations. Thus for a typical polyprotic acid, the deprotonation series dihydrogen borate [H2BO{{su|b=3|p=−}}], hydrogen borate [HBO{{su|b=3|p=2−}}], and borate [BO{{su|b=3|p=3−}}] may be written as pH increases.

Polymeric ions[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

A number of polymeric borate ions are known in anhydrous compounds, which are made by reacting B(OH)3 or B2O3 with metal oxides, for example[1]:-

  • diborate B2O54− e.g. in Mg2B2O5 (suanite)
  • triborate B3O75- in CaAlB3O7 (johachidolite)
  • tetraborate B4O96− in e.g. Li6B4O9
  • metaborates containing the linear [BO2]n with three coordinate boron e.g. in LiBO2, CaB2O4
  • metaborates containing 3 and four coordinate boron, often these are high pressure modifications.

Common borate salts[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Common borate salts include sodium metaborate, NaBO2, and sodium tetraborate, Na2B4O7, which is usually encountered as borax the so-called decahydrate, and actually contains the hydroxoborate ion, B4O5(OH)4 2− and is formulated Na2[B4O5(OH)4]•8H2O.
Boron, California contains large borax deposits and is used extensively for borate mining. The Atacama Desert in Chile also contains mineable borate concentrations. Gerry, New York has been described by Agapito Associates Inc. as a "very nice place to mine for [borate]" although it is uncertain how much damage that might do to the surrounding area.

Various forms of borate are used as wood preservatives or fungicides such as disodium octaborate tetrahydrate.

Borate esters[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Borate esters are organic compounds of the type B(OR)3 where R is an organic residue (for example alkyl or aryl). Borate esters include trimethyl borate, B(OCH3)3, which is used as a precursor to boronic esters for Suzuki couplings.

External links[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

References[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

  1. 1,0 1,1 Egon Wiberg, Arnold Frederick Holleman (2001) Inorganic Chemistry, Elsevier ISBN 0123526515

Category:Borates Category:Oxoanions











{{otheruses}} {{Refimprove|date=August 2009}}

Ο λάθος άνθρωπος
[[File::The Wrong Man.jpg|250px]]
Αυθεντική αφίσα της ταινίας
ΣκηνοθεσίαΝτίνος Δημόπουλος
ΠαραγωγήΦίνος Φιλμ
ΣενάριοΑνδρέας Βλασσόπουλος
ΠρωταγωνιστέςΛάμπρος Κωνσταντάρας,
Μπέττυ Αρβανίτη,
Κώστας Ρηγόπουλος,
Νόρα Κατσέλη,
Μίτση Κωνσταντάρα
ΜουσικήΜίμης Πλέσσας
Κυκλοφορία22 Δεκεμβρίου 1957 (ΗΠΑ)
ΓλώσσαΑγγλικά

{{Infobox film | name = The Wrong Man | image = The Wrong Man.jpg | alt = | caption = Original film poster | director = [[Alfred Hitchcock]] | writer = '''Story:''' <br />[[Maxwell Anderson]] <br />''The True Story of Christopher Emmanuel Balestrero'' <br />'''Screenplay:''' <br />[[Maxwell Anderson]] <br />[[Angus MacPhail]] | starring = [[Henry Fonda]] <br />[[Vera Miles]] <br />[[Anthony Quayle]] <br />[[Harold Stone]] | producer = '''Uncredited:''' <br />[[Alfred Hitchcock]] | music = [[Bernard Herrmann]] | cinematography = [[Robert Burks]] | editing = [[George Tomasini]] | distributor = [[Warner Bros.]] | country = {{FilmUS}} | released = December 22, 1957 (U.S.) | runtime = 105 minutes | budget = [[United States dollar|US$]]1,200,000 | language = English }}

The Wrong Man is a 1956 Film by Alfred Hitchcock which stars Henry Fonda and Vera Miles. The film is based on a true story of an innocent man charged for a crime he did not commit, even though witnesses swear he is guilty. The story was based on the book The True Story of Christopher Emmanuel Balestrero by Maxwell Anderson and the article "A Case of Identity" (Life magazine, June 29, 1953) by Herbert Brean.

The Wrong Man has had a significant influence on many directors. The Wrong Man provoked the longest piece of criticism written by Jean-Luc Godard and was an influence on Taxi Driver.[1]

Plot[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

The film examines the experience of Manny Balestrero (Fonda) who works as a musician in the Stork Club, a nightclub in New York City. Manny and Rose (Miles), his wife, have very little money. When Rose needs some dental work, Manny attempts to borrow on her insurance policy at the insurance office. Unfortunately, he bears a resemblance to an armed robber who had held up the office twice before, so the police are called. Manny is identified by several witnesses and, when providing a handwriting sample, he nervously misspells a word that was also misspelled on the robbery note. He is arrested and charged with the crime.

His defense attorney, Frank O'Connor, builds a case based on mistaken identity. At the time of the first hold-up, Manny had a swollen jaw - a fact which the insurance-office employee would have noticed if Manny had been the robber. At the time of the second hold-up Manny was away on vacation with his family. Manny and Rose look for the three people who could have testified that he was present at the vacation hotel on the day of the hold-up, but two had died in the intervening months and the third could not be found. The stress of all this has a devastating effect on Rose who slowly descends into depression to the point where she is institutionalized.

During the trial a juror, bored with the minutia of one witness's testimony, makes a remark which prompts the judge to grant a mistrial. While Manny is awaiting re-trial the real robber is arrested in the act of robbing a grocery store and Manny is exonerated. He visits Rose at the sanatorium to tell her the good news but she remains in an apathic state. The film closes with a textual epilogue that reveals that two years later Rose had fully recovered and the family moved to Florida.

Historical notes[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

The real O'Connor (1909-1992) was a New York State Senator at the time of the trial. He went on to become district attorney of Queens County (New York City, New York), president of the New York City Council and an appellate-court judge.

Production[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Hitchcock's cameo is a signature occurrence in most of his films. In The Wrong Man he can be seen (at the beginning of the film before the movie actually starts) in silhouette standing in a darkened street as he tells the audience the film is a true story.

The prison scenes were filmed in a real prison (City Prison in Queens, New York). When Manny (Henry Fonda) is taken to his cell, one of the actual inmates shouts "What'd they get ya for, Henry?".

The film was scored by Bernard Herrmann who wrote the soundtracks for all of Hitchcock's films from The Trouble with Harry (1955) through Marnie (1964). It is one of the most-subdued scores Herrmann ever wrote and one of the few he composed with some jazz elements, primarily to represent Fonda's appearance as a musician in the nightclub scenes.

It was the final film that Hitchcock made for Warner Bros., completing a contract commitment that had begun with two films produced for Transatlantic Pictures and released by Warner Bros. in the late 1940s, Rope (1948) and Under Capricorn (1949) (his first two films in Technicolor). After The Wrong Man, Hitchcock resumed his work at Paramount Pictures until he moved to Universal Pictures for the remainder of his career. He also made a single film for Metro-Goldwyn-MayerNorth by Northwest (1959) that has since passed on to Warner Bros.

Cast[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

See also[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

References[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

  1. Godard on Godard, translated by Tom Milne, Da Capo Press) in his years as a critic; and in Scorsese on Scorsese(edited by Ian Christie and David Thompson), it is cited as an influence on Taxi Driver.

== External links == * {{imdb title|id=0051207|title=The Wrong Man}} * {{Amg movie|55628|The Wrong Man}} * {{Tcmdb title|96319|The Wrong Man}}


{{Alfred Hitchcock's films}}


Category:1956 films Category:1950s drama films Category:Film noir Category:Films based on non-fiction books Category:Films directed by Alfred Hitchcock Category:True crime films Category:Warner Bros. films