Σεξισμός

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Σεξισμός ή έμφυλη διάκριση είναι μία προκατάληψη ή διάκριση που βασίζεται στο φύλο (βιολογικό και κοινωνικό) ενός ατόμου. Ο σεξισμός μπορεί να επηρεάσει κάθε φύλο, αλλά είναι καταγεγραμμένο ότι αφορά περισσότερο γυναίκες και κορίτσια.[1] Συνδέεται άμεσα με τα στερεότυπα και τους ρόλους των φύλων[2][3] και μπορεί να συμπεριλάβει την πεποίθηση ότι κάποιο φύλο είναι ανώτερο από το άλλο.[4] Ο ακραίος σεξισμός μπορεί να υποθάλπει τη σεξουαλική παρενόχληση, το βιασμό και άλλες μορφές σεξουαλικής βίας.[5]

Series of photographs lampooning women drivers
Απεικόνιση στερεοτύπων για τις γυναίκες οδηγούς, του 1952.

Τα στερεότυπα των φύλων είναι ευρέως διατηρημένες πεποιθήσεις σχετικά με τα χαρακτηριστικά και τη συμπεριφορά των γυναικών και των ανδρών. [6]

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  1. There is a clear and broad consensus among academic scholars in multiple fields that sexism refers primarily to discrimination against women, and primarily affects women. See, for example:
    • «Sexism». New Oxford American Dictionary (3 έκδοση). Oxford University Press. 2010. ISBN 9780199891535.  Defines sexism as "prejudice, stereotyping, or discrimination, typically against women, on the basis of sex."
    • «Sexism». Encyclopedia Britannica, Online Academic Edition. 2015.  Defines sexism as "prejudice or discrimination based on sex or gender, especially against women and girls." Notes that "sexism in a society is most commonly applied against women and girls. It functions to maintain patriarchy, or male domination, through ideological and material practices of individuals, collectives, and institutions that oppress women and girls on the basis of sex or gender."
    • Cudd, Ann E.; Jones, Leslie E. (2005). «Sexism». A Companion to Applied Ethics. London: Blackwell.  Notes that "'Sexism' refers to a historically and globally pervasive form of oppression against women."
    • Masequesmay, Gina (2008). «Sexism». Στο: O'Brien, Jodi. Encyclopedia of Gender and Society. SAGE.  Notes that "sexism usually refers to prejudice or discrimination based on sex or gender, especially against women and girls." Also states that "sexism is an ideology or practices that maintain patriarchy or male domination."
    • Hornsby, Jennifer (2005). «Sexism». Στο: Honderich, Ted. The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 έκδοση). Oxford.  Defines sexism as "thought or practice which may permeate language and which assume's women's inferiority to men."
    • «Sexism». Collins Dictionary of Sociology. Harper Collins. 2006.  Defines sexism as "any devaluation or denigration of women or men, but particularly women, which is embodied in institutions and social relationships."
    • «Sexism». Palgrave MacMillan Dictionary of Political Thought. Palgrave MacMillan. 2007.  Notes that "either sex may be the object of sexist attitudes... however, it is commonly held that, in developed societies, women have been the usual victims."
    • «Sexism». The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Love, Courtship, and Sexuality through History, Volume 6: The Modern World. Greenwood. 2007.  "Sexism is any act, attitude, or institutional configuration that systematically subordinates or devalues women. Built upon the belief that men and women are constitutionally different, sexism takes these differences as indications that men are inherently superior to women, which then is used to justify the nearly universal dominance of men in social and familial relationships, as well as politics, religion, language, law, and economics."
    • Foster, Carly Hayden (2011). «Sexism». Στο: Kurlan, George Thomas. The Encyclopedia of Political Science. CQ Press. ISBN 9781608712434.  Notes that "both men and women can experience sexism, but sexism against women is more pervasive."
    • Johnson, Allan G. (2000). «Sexism». The Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology. Blackwell.  Suggests that "the key test of whether something is sexist... lies in its consequences: if it supports male privilege, then it is by definition sexist. I specify 'male privilege' because in every known society where gender inequality exists, males are privileged over females."
    • Lorber, Judith (2011). Gender Inequality: Feminist Theories and Politics. Oxford University Press, σελ. 5.  Notes that "although we speak of gender inequality, it is usually women who are disadvantaged relative to similarly situated men."
    • Wortman, Camille B.; Loftus, Elizabeth S.; Weaver, Charles A (1999). Psychology. McGraw-Hill.  "As throughout history, today women are the primary victims of sexism, prejudice directed at one sex, even in the United States."
  2. Matsumoto, 2001. P.197.
  3. Nakdimen KA The American Journal of Psychiatry [1984, 141(4):499-503]
  4. Doob, Christopher B. 2013. Social Inequality and Social Stratification in US Society. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
  5. Forcible Rape Institutionalized Sexism in the Criminal Justice System| Gerald D. Robin Division of Criminal Justice, University of New Haven
  6. Manstead, A. S. R.; Hewstone, Miles; et al. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Psychology. Oxford, UK; Cambridge, Mass., USA: Blackwell, 1999, 1995, pp. 256 – 57, ISBN 978-0-631-22774-8.

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