Αμερικανοί

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Αμερικάνοι
Flag of the United States.svg
Σημαία των Ηνωμένων Πολιτειών
Συνολικός πληθυσμός
π. 308 εκατομμύρια[1]
2010 United States Census
π. 329 million[2]
2018 estimate
Περιοχές με σημαντικούς πληθυσμούς
Flag of Mexico.svg Μεξικό 738.100–1.000.000[3][4]
Flag of Canada.svg Καναδάς 316.350–1.000.000[5][6]
Flag of the Philippines.svg Φιλιππίνες 220.000–600.000[7][8]
Flag of Germany.svg Γερμανία 324.000[9]
Flag of Israel.svg Ισραήλ 200.000[10][11]
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Ηνωμένο Βασίλειο 139.000–197.143[12][13]
Flag of South Korea.svg Νότια Κορέα 120.000–158.000[14]
Flag of Costa Rica.svg Κόστα Ρίκα 130.000[15]
Flag of France.svg Γαλλία 100.000[16]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Κίνα 71.493[17]
Flag of Brazil.svg Βραζιλία 28.000–70.000[18][19]
Flag of Colombia.svg Κολομβία 60.000[20]
Flag of Hong Kong.svg Χονγκ Κονγκ 60.000[21]
Flag of India.svg Ινδία 60.000[22]
Flag of Australia.svg Αυστραλία 56.276[23]
Flag of Pakistan.svg Πακιστάν 52.486[24]
Flag of Japan.svg Ιαπωνία 51.321[25]
Flag of Italy.svg Ιταλία 50.000[26]
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg Ηνωμένα Αραβικά Εμιράτα 50.000[27]
Flag of Haiti.svg Αϊτή 45.000[28]
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Σαουδική Αραβία 40.000[29]
Flag of Argentina.svg Αργεντινή 37.000[30]
Flag of Norway.svg Νορβηγία 33.509[31]
Flag of the Bahamas.svg Μπαχάμες 30.000[32]
Flag of Russia.svg Ρωσία 30.000[33]
Flag of Lebanon.svg Λίβανος 25.000[34]
Flag of Panama.svg Παναμάς 25.000[35]
Flag of Spain.svg Ισπανία 22.082[36]
Flag of Chile.svg Χιλή 19.161[37]
Flag of El Salvador.svg Ελ Σαλβαδόρ 19.000[38]
Flag of New Zealand.svg Νέα Ζηλανδία 17.751[39]
Γλώσσες
Κυρίως Αμερικανικά Αγγλικά, αλλά επίσης Ισπανικά και άλλες
Θρησκεία
Κυρίως Χριστιανισμός (Προτεσταντισμός, Καθολικισμός, Μορμονισμός και Ορθόδοξοι)[40]
Διάφορες μη χριστιανικές θρησκείες (Ιουδαϊσμός, Ισλάμ και άλλες)[40]

Οι Αμερικανοί είναι υπήκοοι και πολίτες των Ηνωμένων Πολιτειών της Αμερικής.[41] Αν και οι πολίτες συνθέτουν την πλειοψηφία των Αμερικανών, ορισμένοι διπλοί πολίτες, ομογενείς και μόνιμοι κάτοικοι μπορούν επίσης να διεκδικήσουν αμερικανική υπηκοότητα.[42][43] Οι Ηνωμένες Πολιτείες φιλοξενούν ανθρώπους πολλών διαφορετικών εθνικών προελεύσεων. Ως αποτέλεσμα, ο αμερικανικός πολιτισμός και δίκαιο δεν εξισώνεται με την εθνικότητα, τη φυλή ή την εθνότητα, αλλά με την υπηκοότητα και τη μόνιμη αφοσίωση.[44][45][46]

Οι ομιλητές της αγγλικής γλώσσας, ακόμη και ομιλητές πολλών άλλων γλωσσών, συνήθως χρησιμοποιούν τον όρο "Αμερικανοί" για να σημαίνουν αποκλειστικά τους ανθρώπους των Ηνωμένων Πολιτειών. Αυτό αναπτύχθηκε από την αρχική χρήση του όρου για να διαφοροποιήσει τους Άγγλους των αμερικανικών αποικιών από τους Άγγλους της Αγγλίας.[47] Ο όρος Αμερικανός μπορεί να αναφερθεί και για άτομα από την Αμερικανική ήπειρο[48].

Παραπομπές[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

  1. United States Census Bureau (December 21, 2010). U.S. Census Bureau Announces 2010 Census Population Counts – Apportionment Counts Delivered to President. Δελτίο τύπου. Ανακτήθηκε στις November 23, 2012.
  2. «U.S. and World Population Clock». U.S. Census Bureau. Ανακτήθηκε στις November 27, 2018. 
  3. «People live in Mexico, INEGI, 2010». 
  4. Smith, Dr. Claire M. (August 2010). «These are our Numbers: Civilian Americans Overseas and Voter Turnout» (PDF). OVF Research Newsletter. Overseas Vote Foundation. Ανακτήθηκε στις December 11, 2012. Previous research indicates that the number of U.S. Americans living in Mexico is around 1 million, with 600,000 of those living in Mexico City. 
  5. «Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data». Statistics Canada. Government of Canada. June 10, 2010. Ανακτήθηκε στις February 17, 2013. Ethnic origins Americans Total responses 316,350 
  6. Barrie McKenna (June 27, 2012). «Tax amnesty offered to Americans in Canada». The Globe and Mail (Ottawa). https://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-investor/personal-finance/taxes/tax-amnesty-offered-to-americans-in-canada/article4372266/. Ανακτήθηκε στις December 17, 2012. «There are roughly a million Americans in Canada – many with little or no ties to the United States.» 
  7. Evan S. Medeiros. Keith Crane. Eric Heginbotham. Norman D. Levin. Julia F. Lowell (November 7, 2008). Pacific Currents: The Responses of U.S. Allies and Security Partners in East Asia to Chinaâ€TMs Rise. Rand Corporation, σελ. 115. ISBN 978-0-8330-4708-3. https://books.google.com/books?id=Ndb6KWTKRrwC&pg=PA115. «An estimated 4 million Filipino-Americans, most of whom are U.S. citizens or dual citizens, live in the United States, and over 250,000 U.S. citizens live in the Philippines.» 
    «New U.S. ambassador to PH aims to 'strengthen' ties». CNN Philippines (Metro Manila). December 2, 2016. http://cnnphilippines.com/news/2016/12/02/New-U.S.-ambassador-to-PH-aims-to-strengthen-ties.html. Ανακτήθηκε στις March 20, 2017. «According to his figures, there are about 4 million Filipino-Americans residing in the U.S., and 250,000 Americans living and working in the Philippines.» 
    Lozada, Aaron (December 2, 2016). «New U.S. envoy: Relationship with PH 'most important'». ABS-CBN News (Manila). http://news.abs-cbn.com/news/12/01/16/new-us-envoy-relationship-with-ph-most-important. Ανακτήθηκε στις March 20, 2017. «According to Kim, the special relations between the U.S. and the Philippines is evident in the "four million Filipino-Americans who are residing in the United States and 250,000 Americans living and working in the Philippines."» 
    International Business Publications, USA (August 1, 2013). Philippines Business Law Handbook: Strategic Information and Laws. Int'l Business Publications, σελ. 29. ISBN 978-1-4387-7078-9. https://books.google.com/books?id=c7ucUVVBsg4C&pg=PA29. «An estimated 600,000 Americans visit the Philippines each year, while an estimated 300,000 reside in-country.» 
    Kapoor, Kanupriya; Dela Cruz, Enrico (17 October 2016). «Americans in Philippines jittery as Duterte rails against United States». Reuters (Olongapo). https://www.reuters.com/article/us-philippines-usa-mood/americans-in-philippines-jittery-as-duterte-rails-against-united-states-idUSKBN12I07K. Ανακτήθηκε στις 20 April 2018. «About four million people of Philippine ancestry live in the United States, one of its largest minorities, and about 220,000 Americans, many of them military veterans, live in the Philippines. An additional 650,000 visit each year, according to U.S. State Department figures.» 
    «FACT SHEET: United States-Philippines Bilateral Relations». U.S. Embassy in the Philippines. United States Department of State. 28 April 2014. Ανακτήθηκε στις 20 April 2018. Around 350,000 Americans reside in the Philippines, and approximately 600,000 U.S. citizens visit the country each year. 
  8. Cooper, Matthew (November 15, 2013). «Why the Philippines Is America's Forgotten Colony». National Journal. http://www.nationaljournal.com/magazine/why-the-philippines-is-america-s-forgotten-colony-20131115. Ανακτήθηκε στις January 28, 2015. «c. At the same time, person-to-person contacts are widespread: Some 600,000 Americans live in the Philippines and there are 3 million Filipino-Americans, many of whom are devoting themselves to typhoon relief.» 
  9. «BiB - Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung - Pressemitteilungen - Zuwanderung aus außereuropäischen Ländern fast verdoppelt». www.bib-demografie.de. Αρχειοθετήθηκε από το πρωτότυπο στις December 9, 2017. Ανακτήθηκε στις March 2, 2017. 
  10. Daphna Berman (January 23, 2008). «Need an appointment at the U.S. Embassy? Get on line!». Haaretz. http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/news/need-an-appointment-at-the-u-s-embassy-get-on-line-1.237816. Ανακτήθηκε στις December 11, 2012. «According to estimates, some 200,000 American citizens live in Israel and the Palestinian territories.» 
  11. Michele Chabin (March 19, 2012). «In vitro babies denied U.S. citizenship». USA Today (Jerusalem). http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/world/story/2012-03-19/in-vitro-citizenship/53656616/1. Ανακτήθηκε στις December 11, 2012. «Most of the 200,000 U.S. citizens in Israel have dual citizenship, and fertility treatments are common because they are free.» 
  12. «Population by Country of Birth and Nationality Report, August 2012» (PDF). Office for National Statistics. August 30, 2012. Ανακτήθηκε στις December 11, 2012. 
  13. Simon Rogers (May 26, 2011). «The UK's foreign-born population: see where people live and where they're from». The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2011/may/26/foreign-born-uk-population. Ανακτήθηκε στις February 17, 2013. «County of birth and county of nationality. United States of America 197 143» 
  14. «U.S. Citizen Services». Embassy of the United States Seoul, Korea. United States Department of State. Αρχειοθετήθηκε από το πρωτότυπο στις November 30, 2012. Ανακτήθηκε στις December 11, 2012. This website is updated daily and should be your primary resource when applying for a passport, Consular Report of Birth Abroad, notarization, or any of the other services we offer to the estimated 120,000 U.S. citizens traveling, living, and working in Korea. 
    «North Korea propganda video depicts invasion of South Korea, US hostage taking». Advertiser. Agence France-Presse. March 22, 2013. http://m.adelaidenow.com.au/news/world/north-korea-propganda-video-depicts-invasion-of-south-korea-us-hostage-taking/story-fnd11ay0-1226603593729. Ανακτήθηκε στις March 23, 2013. «According to official immigration figures, South Korea has an American population of more than 130,000 civilians and 28,000 troops.» 
  15. «Background Note: Costa Rica». Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs. United States Department of State. April 9, 2012. Ανακτήθηκε στις December 11, 2012. Over 130,000 private American citizens, including many retirees, reside in the country and more than 700,000 American citizens visit Costa Rica annually. 
  16. «Americans in France». Embassy of the United States, Paris. United States Department of State. Αρχειοθετήθηκε από το πρωτότυπο στις April 18, 2015. Ανακτήθηκε στις April 26, 2015. Today, although no official figure is available it is estimated that over 100,000 American citizens reside in France, making France one of the top 10 destinations for American expatriates. 
  17. «Major Figures on Residents from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan and Foreigners Covered by 2010 Population Census». National Bureau of Statistics of China. April 29, 2011. Αρχειοθετήθηκε από το πρωτότυπο στις May 14, 2011. Ανακτήθηκε στις April 29, 2011. 
  18. «Immigrant and Emigrant Populations by Country of Origin and Destination». Migration Policy Institute. 2015. Ανακτήθηκε στις April 27, 2017. Migrants from the United States in Brazil Number of migrants: 28,000 
  19. «Brazil (11/30/11)». Previous Editions of Brazil Background Note. United States Department of State. November 30, 2012. Ανακτήθηκε στις December 11, 2012. The consular section of the embassy, the consulates, and the consular agents provide vital services to the estimated 70,000 U.S. citizens residing in Brazil. 
  20. «Colombia (03/28/13)». United States Department of State. Αρχειοθετήθηκε από το πρωτότυπο στις April 20, 2013. Ανακτήθηκε στις February 27, 2014. Based on Colombian statistics, an estimated 60,000 U.S. citizens reside in Colombia and 280,000 U.S. citizens travel, study and do business in Colombia each year. 
  21. «Hong Kong (10/11/11)». Previous Editions of Hong Kong Background Note. United States Department of State. October 11, 2011. Ανακτήθηκε στις December 11, 2012. There are some 1,400 U.S. firms, including 817 regional operations (288 regional headquarters and 529 regional offices), and over 60,000 American residents in Hong Kong. 
  22. Barry Bearak; Seth Mydans (June 8, 2002). «Many Americans, Unfazed, Go On Doing Business in India». The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2002/06/08/world/many-americans-unfazed-go-on-doing-business-in-india.html. Ανακτήθηκε στις December 17, 2012. «The number of Americans living in India is often estimated at 60,000.» 
  23. «ibid, Ancestry (full classification list) by Sex – Australia». Ανακτήθηκε στις October 19, 2014. 
  24. Gishkori, Zahid (July 30, 2015). «Karachi has witnessed 43% decrease in target killing: Nisar». The Express Tribune. https://tribune.com.pk/story/929229/over-280000-immigrants-living-in-pakistan-says-nisar/. Ανακτήθηκε στις August 3, 2017. «As many as 116,308 Afghan nationals are living as immigrants in the country, higher than any other country,” Nisar told the House. Besides Afghans, 52,486 Americans, 79,447 British citizens and 17,320 Canadians are residing in the country, the interior minister added.» 
  25. «Table 10.1 Registered Foreigners by Nationality: 1950-2006» (PDF). Ministry of Justice, . Annual Report of Statistics on Legal Migrants. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research. 2008. Ανακτήθηκε στις December 11, 2012. 
  26. Kelly Carter (May 17, 2005). «High cost of living crush Americans' dreams of Italian living». USA Today (Positano, Italy). http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/world/2005-05-09-italy-expats_x.htm. Ανακτήθηκε στις December 17, 2012. «Nearly 50,000 Americans lived in Italy at the end of 2003, according to Italy's immigration office.» 
  27. «UAE´s population – by nationality». BQ Magazine. April 12, 2015. Αρχειοθετήθηκε από το πρωτότυπο στις July 11, 2015. Ανακτήθηκε στις June 13, 2015. 
  28. McKinley Jr.; James C. (January 17, 2010). «For 45,000 Americans in Haiti, the Quake Was 'a Nightmare That's Not Ending'». The New York Times. Ανακτήθηκε στις February 27, 2015. 
  29. «SAUDI-U.S. TRADE». Commerce Office. Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia in Washington D.C. Αρχειοθετήθηκε από το πρωτότυπο στις September 13, 2012. Ανακτήθηκε στις February 14, 2012. Furthermore, there are approximately 40,000 Americans living and working in the Kingdom. 
  30. «Argentina (03/12/12)». Previous Editions of Argentina Background Note. United States Department of State. March 12, 2012. Ανακτήθηκε στις December 24, 2012. The Embassy's Consular Section monitors the welfare and whereabouts of some 37,000 U.S. citizen residents of Argentina and more than 500,000 U.S. tourists each year. 
  31. «Statistics Norway – Persons with immigrant background by immigration category and country background. January 1, 2010». Ανακτήθηκε στις October 19, 2014. 
  32. «Bahamas, The (01/25/12)». Previous Editions of Panama Background Note. United States Department of State. January 25, 2012. Ανακτήθηκε στις December 29, 2012. The countries share ethnic and cultural ties, especially in education, and The Bahamas is home to approximately 30,000 American residents. 
  33. Bertrand, Eva (December 20, 2012). «US citizens moving to Russia». Voice of Russia (Russia). Αρχειοθετήθηκε από το πρωτότυπο στις November 6, 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20171106134706/https://sputniknews.com/voiceofrussia/2012_12_20/US-citizens-moving-to-Russia-interview/. Ανακτήθηκε στις May 7, 2017. «There are about 6.32 million American citizens living abroad, of those about 30,000 chose Russia, according to the Association of Americans Resident Overseas.» 
  34. Kate King (July 18, 2006). «U.S. family: Get us out of Lebanon». CNN. Αρχειοθετήθηκε από το πρωτότυπο στις March 6, 2012. https://web.archive.org/web/20120306002338/http://articles.cnn.com/2006-07-18/world/stranded.family_1_beirut-lebanon-bombing?_s=PM:WORLD. Ανακτήθηκε στις February 14, 2012. «About 350 of the estimated 25,000 American citizens in Lebanon had been flown to Cyprus from the U.S. Embassy in Beirut by nightfall Tuesday, Maura Harty, the assistant secretary of state for consular affairs, told reporters.» 
  35. «Panama (03/09)». Previous Editions of Panama Background Note. United States Department of State. March 2009. Ανακτήθηκε στις December 17, 2012. About 25,000 American citizens reside in Panama, many retirees from the Panama Canal Commission and individuals who hold dual nationality. 
  36. «Foreign population by sex, country of nationality and age (up to 85 and above)». Instituto Natcional de Estadistica (στα Spanish). 1 January 2007. Ανακτήθηκε στις 28 May 2018. Both genders 22,082 
  37. S. Vedoya; V. Rivera (4 April 2018). «Gobierno cifra en más de un millón el número de inmigrantes que están en Chile» (στα Spanish). Latercera. http://www.latercera.com/nacional/noticia/gobierno-cifra-mas-millon-numero-inmigrantes-estan-chile/121733/. Ανακτήθηκε στις 20 April 2018. 
  38. «El Salvador (01/10)». United States Department of State. Αρχειοθετήθηκε από το πρωτότυπο στις April 13, 2014. Ανακτήθηκε στις April 11, 2014. More than 19,000 American citizens live and work full-time in El Salvador 
  39. «North Americans: Facts and figures». Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/NewZealandPeoples/NorthAmericans/4/en. 
  40. 40,0 40,1 Luis Lug; Sandra Stencel; John Green; Gregory Smith; Dan Cox; Allison Pond; Tracy Miller; Elixabeth Podrebarac; Michelle Ralston (February 2008). «U.S. Religious Landscape Survey» (PDF). Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Pew Research Center. Ανακτήθηκε στις February 12, 2012. 
  41. Πρότυπο:USC ("Nationals and citizens of United States at birth"); Πρότυπο:USC ("Nationals but not citizens of the United States at birth"); Ricketts v. Att'y Gen., 897 F.3d 491, 493-94 n.3 (3d Cir. 2018) ("Citizenship and nationality are not synonymous."); Tuaua v. United States, 788 F.3d 300 (D.C. Cir. 2015); Πρότυπο:USCFR ("U.S. non-citizen national means a person on whom U.S. nationality, but not U.S. citizenship, has been conferred at birth under 8 U.S.C. 1408, or under other law or treaty, and who has not subsequently lost such non-citizen nationality."); Πρότυπο:USC ("Restrictions on loss of nationality"); see also Πρότυπο:USC ("Denial of rights and privileges as national"); Πρότυπο:Uscsub ("Treatment of nationality claims").
  42. See, e.g., Khalid v. Sessions, 904 F.3d 129, 131 (2d Cir. 2018) (the court fully agreed with a lawful permanent resident (LPR) that he is an American); Jaen v. Sessions, 899 F.3d 182, 190 (2d Cir. 2018) (same); Anderson v. Holder, 673 F.3d 1089, 1092 (9th Cir. 2012) (same); Dent v. Sessions, 900 F.3d 1075, 1080 (9th Cir. 2018) ("An individual has third-party standing when [(1)] the party asserting the right has a close relationship with the person who possesses the right [and (2)] there is a hindrance to the possessor's ability to protect his own interests.") (quoting Sessions v. Morales-Santana, 582 U.S. ___, ___, 137 S.Ct. 1678, 1689 (2017)) (internal quotation marks omitted); see also Gonzalez-Alarcon v. Macias, 884 F.3d 1266 (10th Cir. 2018); Hammond v. Sessions, No. 16-3013, p.2-3 (2d Cir. Jan. 29, 2018) (summary order).
  43. Petersen, William. Novak, Michael. Gleason, Philip (1982). Concepts of Ethnicity. Harvard University Press, σελ. 62. ISBN 9780674157262. https://books.google.com/books?id=7Mkxdz_3d-oC&lpg=PA62&vq=To%20be%20or%20to%20become%20an%20American&pg=PA62#v=snippet&q=To%20be%20or%20to%20become%20an%20American&f=false. Ανακτήθηκε στις February 1, 2013. «...from Thomas Paine's plea in 1783...to Henry Clay's remark in 1815... "It is hard for us to believe ... how conscious these early Americans were of the job of developing American character out of the regional and generational polaritities and contradictions of a nation of immigrants and migrants." ... To be or to become an American, a person did not have to be of any particular national, linguistic, religious, or ethnic background. All he had to do was to commit himself to the political ideology centered on the abstract ideals of liberty, equality, and republicanism. Thus the universalist ideological character of American nationality meant that it was open to anyone who willed to become an American.» 
  44. Πρότυπο:Uscsub ("The term 'national of the United States' means (A) a citizen of the United States, or (B) a person who, though not a citizen of the United States, owes permanent allegiance to the United States.") (emphasis added).
  45. «Permanent Allegiance Law and Legal Definition». definitions.uslegal.com. 
  46. Christine Barbour. Gerald C Wright (January 15, 2013). Keeping the Republic: Power and Citizenship in American Politics, 6th Edition The Essentials. CQ Press, σελ. 31–33. ISBN 978-1-4522-4003-9. https://books.google.com/books?id=40dPkS2aRZEC&pg=PA31. Ανακτήθηκε στις January 6, 2015. «Who Is An American? Native-born and naturalized citizens» Shklar, Judith N. (1991). American Citizenship: The Quest for Inclusion. The Tanner Lectures on Human Values. Harvard University Press, σελ. 3–4. ISBN 9780674022164. https://books.google.com/books?id=8n829DOw1PMC&pg=PA3. Ανακτήθηκε στις December 17, 2012. Slotkin, Richard (2001). «Unit Pride: Ethnic Platoons and the Myths of American Nationality». American Literary History (Oxford University Press) 13 (3): 469–498. doi:10.1093/alh/13.3.469. http://wesscholar.wesleyan.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1028&context=div2facpubs. Ανακτήθηκε στις December 17, 2012. «But it also expresses a myth of American nationality that remains vital in our political and cultural life: the idealized self-image of a multiethnic, multiracial democracy, hospitable to differences but united by a common sense of national belonging.». Eder, Klaus. Giesen, Bernhard (2001). European Citizenship: Between National Legacies and Postnational Projects. Oxford University Press, σελ. 25–26. ISBN 9780199241200. https://books.google.com/books?id=lL-FiY6xhfUC&lpg=PA26&dq=%22American%20nationality%22%20citizenship&pg=PA25#v=onepage&q=%22American%20nationality%22%20citizenship&f=false. Ανακτήθηκε στις February 1, 2013. «In inter-state relations, the American nation state presents its members as a monistic political body-despite ethnic and national groups in the interior.» Petersen, William. Novak, Michael. Gleason, Philip (1982). Concepts of Ethnicity. Harvard University Press, σελ. 62. ISBN 9780674157262. https://books.google.com/books?id=7Mkxdz_3d-oC&lpg=PA62&vq=To%20be%20or%20to%20become%20an%20American&pg=PA62#v=snippet&q=To%20be%20or%20to%20become%20an%20American&f=false. Ανακτήθηκε στις February 1, 2013. «To be or to become an American, a person did not have to be of any particular national, linguistic, religious, or ethnic background. All he had to do was to commit himself to the political ideology centered on the abstract ideals of liberty, equality, and republicanism. Thus the universalist ideological character of American nationality meant that it was open to anyone who willed to become an American.» Charles Hirschman. Philip Kasinitz. Josh Dewind (November 4, 1999). The Handbook of International Migration: The American Experience. Russell Sage Foundation, σελ. 300. ISBN 978-1-61044-289-3. https://books.google.com/books?id=nPsWAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA300. David Halle (July 15, 1987). America's Working Man: Work, Home, and Politics Among Blue Collar Property Owners. University of Chicago Press, σελ. 233. ISBN 978-0-226-31366-5. https://books.google.com/books?id=1KCdTkq56zoC&pg=PA233. «The first, and central, way involves the view that Americans are all those persons born within the boundaries of the United States or admitted to citizenship by the government.» 
  47. (απαιτείται συνδρομή) «American». Oxford English Dictionary. http://dictionary.oed.com.dax.lib.unf.edu/cgi/entry/50007152?query_type=word&queryword=American&first=1&max_to_show=10&sort_type=alpha&result_place=1&search_id=870u-gw0naW-7329&hilite=50007152. Ανακτήθηκε στις November 27, 2008. 
  48. Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage, p. 87. Retrieved November 28, 2008.