Αναλυτική φιλοσοφία

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Η Αναλυτική φιλοσοφίαείναι είδος φιλοσοφίας το οποίο έγινε κυρίαρχο στις αρχές του 20ου αιώνα. Στις Ηνωμένες Πολιτείες της Αμερικής, Ηνωμένο βσίλειο, Καναδά, Αυστραλία, Νέα Ζηλανδία και Σκανδιναβία, η πλειοψηφία των φιλοσοφικών σχολών αυτοχαρακτηρίζεται ως τμήματα αναλυτικής[1]

Ο όρος αναλυτική φιλοσοφία μπορεί να αναφέρεται σε διάφορα πράγματα:

  • Ως φιλοσοφική πρακτική,[2][3] χαρακτηρίζεται από την έμφαση στην σαφήνεια της επιχειρηματολογιας, συχνά κάνοντας χρήση της λογικής, ανάλυσης και σε λιγότερο βαθμό των μαθηματικών και φυσικών επιστημών.[4][5][6]
  • Ως ιστορική εξελιξη, η αναλυτική φιλοσοφία αναφέρεται σε ορισμένα γεγονότα της φιλοσοφίας του 20ου αιώνα, τα οποία κατέληξαν να έχουν καθορίσει σημερινές πρακτικές. Κεντρικά πρόσωπα σε αυτή την ανάπτυξη ήταν οι Μπέρτραντ Ράσελ, Ludwig Wittgenstein, G. E. Moore, Gottlob Frege, και οι φιλόσοφοι του λογικού θετικισμού.

Η αναλυτική φιλοσοφία συχνά έρχεται σε αντίθεση με άλλες παραδοσιακές σχολές φιλοσοφίας, όπως υπαρξισμός, φαινομενολογία ή Μαρξισμό.[7]

Παραπομπές[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

  1. "Without exception, the best philosophy departments in the United States are dominated by analytic philosophy, and among the leading philosophers in the United States, all but a tiny handful would be classified as analytic philosophers. Practitioners of types of philosophizing that are not in the analytic tradition—- such as phenomenology, classical pragmatism, existentialism, or Marxism—- feel it necessary to define their position in relation to analytic philosophy." John Searle (2003), Contemporary Philosophy in the United States in N. Bunnin and E. P. Tsui-James (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy, 2nd ed., (Blackwell, 2003), p. 1.
  2. See, e.g., Avrum Stroll, Twentieth-Century Analytic Philosophy (Columbia University Press, 2000), p. 5: "[I]t is difficult to give a precise definition of 'analytic philosophy' since it is not so much a specific doctrine as a loose concatenation of approaches to problems." Also, see Stroll (2000), p. 7: "I think Sluga is right in saying 'it may be hopeless to try to determine the essence of analytic philosophy.' Nearly every proposed definition has been challenged by some scholar. [...] [W]e are dealing with a family resemblance concept."
  3. See Hans-Johann Glock, What Is Analytic Philosophy (Cambridge University Press, 2008), p. 205: "The answer to the title question, then, is that analytic philosophy is a tradition held together both by ties of mutual influence and by family resemblances."
  4. Brian Leiter (2006) webpage "Analytic" and "Continental" Philosophy[νεκρός σύνδεσμος]. Quote on the definition: "'Analytic' philosophy today names a style of doing philosophy, not a philosophical program or a set of substantive views. Analytic philosophers, crudely speaking, aim for argumentative clarity and precision; draw freely on the tools of logic; and often identify, professionally and intellectually, more closely with the sciences and mathematics, than with the humanities."
  5. Glock, H. J. (2004). «Was Wittgenstein an Analytic Philosopher?». Metaphilosophy 35 (4): 419–444. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9973.2004.00329.x. 
  6. Colin McGinn, The Making of a Philosopher: My Journey through Twentieth-Century Philosophy (HarperCollins, 2002), p. xi.: "analytical philosophy [is] too narrow a label, since [it] is not generally a matter of taking a word or concept and analyzing it (whatever exactly thatthat might be). [...] This tradition emphasizes clarity, rigor, argument, theory, truth. It is not a tradition that aims primarily for inspiration or consolation or ideology. Nor is it particularly concerned with 'philosophy of life,' though parts of it are. This kind of philosophy is more like science than religion, more like mathematics than poetry – though it is neither science nor mathematics."
  7. A. C. Grayling (ed.), Philosophy 2: Further through the Subject (Oxford University Press, 1998), p. 2: "Analytic philosophy is mainly associated with the contemporary English-speaking world, but it is by no means the only important philosophical tradition. In this volume two other immensely rich and important such traditions are introduced: Indian philosophy, and philosophical thought in Europe from the time of Hegel." L.J. Cohen, The Dialogue of Reason: An Analysis of Analytical Philosophy (Oxford University Press, 1986), p. 5: "So, despite a few overlaps, analytical philosophy is not difficult to distinguish broadly [...] from other modern movements, like phenomenology, say, or existentialism, or from the large amount of philosophizing that has also gone on in the present century within frameworks deriving from other influential thinkers like Aquinas, Hegel, or Marx." H.-J. Glock, What Is Analytic Philosophy? (Cambridge University Press, 2008), p. 86: "Most non-analytic philosophers of the twentieth century do not belong to continental philosophy."