Χρήστης:Radiphus/πρόχειρο

Από τη Βικιπαίδεια, την ελεύθερη εγκυκλοπαίδεια
Πήδηση στην πλοήγηση Πήδηση στην αναζήτηση

Σημείωση: Όταν ο βασιλιάς δέχεται επίθεση, τότε ο παίχτης είναι αναγκασμένος να αντιδράσει, είτε αιχμαλωτίζοντας τον επιτιθέμενο πεσσό του αντιπάλου του, είτε μετακινώντας τον βασιλιά σε ένα ασφαλές τετράγωνο, είτε παρεμβάλλοντας έναν από τους δικούς του πεσσούς ανάμεσα στον επιτιθέμενο πεσσό και τον βασιλιά του, ώστε να "μπλοκάρει" την επίθεση.

Κανόνες[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Οι κανόνες του παιχνιδιού είναι δημοσιευμένοι στο εγχειρίδιο της Διεθνούς Σκακιστικής Ομοσπονδίας.[1] Η πιο πρόσφατη αναθεώρησή τους πραγματοποιήθηκε το 2017.

Διάταξη[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

αβγδεζηθ
8
Chessboard480.svg
α8 μαύρος πύργος
β8 μαύρος ίππος
γ8 μαύρος αξιωματικός
δ8 μαύρη βασίλισσα
ε8 μαύρος βασιλιάς
ζ8 μαύρος αξιωματικός
η8 μαύρος ίππος
θ8 μαύρος πύργος
α7 μαύρο πιόνι
β7 μαύρο πιόνι
γ7 μαύρο πιόνι
δ7 μαύρο πιόνι
ε7 μαύρο πιόνι
ζ7 μαύρο πιόνι
η7 μαύρο πιόνι
θ7 μαύρο πιόνι
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α2 λευκό πιόνι
β2 λευκό πιόνι
γ2 λευκό πιόνι
δ2 λευκό πιόνι
ε2 λευκό πιόνι
ζ2 λευκό πιόνι
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θ2 λευκό πιόνι
α1 λευκός πύργος
β1 λευκός ίππος
γ1 λευκός αξιωματικός
δ1 λευκή βασίλισσα
ε1 λευκός βασιλιάς
ζ1 λευκός αξιωματικός
η1 λευκός ίππος
θ1 λευκός πύργος
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Initial position, first row: rook, knight, bishop, queen, king, bishop, knight, and rook; second row: pawns
Αρχική διάταξη των πεσσών σε μια σκακιέρα.

Το σκάκι παίζεται σε τετράγωνο πλαίσιο αποτελούμενο από οχτώ οριζόντιες λωρίδες και οχτώ κάθετες στήλες. Οι λωρίδες είναι σημειωμένες με αριθμούς από το 1 εώς το 8, ενώ οι στήλες είναι σημειωμένες με γράμματα της αλφαβήτας από το α εώς το θ. Τα χρώματα των 64 τετραγώνων εναλλάσσονται και χαρακτηρίζονται ως ανοιχτόχρωμα και σκούρα. Η σκακιέρα τοποθετείται έτσι ανάμεσα στους παίχτες, ώστε και οι δύο να έχουν ένα ανοιχτόχρωμο τετράγωνο στην κάτω-δεξιά γωνία τους.

Οι πεσσοί χωρίζονται σε λευκά και μαύρα σετ και ως εκ τούτου αναφέρονται ως "Λευκά" και "Μαύρα" αντιστοίχως. Κάθε παίχτης αρχίζει μια παρτίδα σκακιού με 16 κομμάτια του ίδιου χρώματος, στα οποία συμπεριλαμβάνονται ένας βασιλιάς, μια βασίλισσα, δύο πύργοι, δύο ίπποι, δύο αξιωματικοί και οχτώ πιόνια. Τα κομμάτια τοποθετούνται με τον τρόπου που φαίνεται στο διπλανό διάγραμμα, ώστε οι βασίλισσες να καταλαμβάνουν τετράγωνο ίδιου χρώματος με το δικό τους.

Κινήσεις[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Ο παίχτης με τα Λευκά κάνει την πρώτη κίνηση σε μια παρτίδα σκάκι. Τα Μαύρα κάνουν την επόμενη κίνηση και οι δύο παίχτες συνεχίζουν να εναλλάσσουν τη σειρά τους, κινώντας έναν πεσσό κάθε φορά. Οι πεσσοί μπορούν να μετακινηθούν είτε σε ένα ελεύθερο τετράγωνο, είτε σε ένα τετράγωνο που καταλαμβάνεται από έναν πεσσό διαφορετικού χρώματος, το οποίο αιχμαλωτίζεται και αφαιρείται από τη σκακιέρα. Δεν επιτρέπεται η εκτέλεση μιας κίνησης από έναν παίχτη, όταν αυτή η κίνηση αφήνει τον βασιλιά του άμεσα εκτεθιμένο σε επίθεση από τους πεσσούς του αντίπαλου παίχτη. Επίσης, όταν είναι η σειρά ενός παίχτη να κάνει μια κίνηση, αυτός δεν έχει το δικαίωμα να αρνηθεί να παίξει τη σειρά του. Όταν ένας παίχτης δεν έχει κάποια νόμιμη κίνηση να παίξει, με τους πεσσούς του, τότε η παρτίδα ολοκληρώνεται με ματ και ήττα για τον παίχτη χωρίς νόμιμες κινήσεις εάν ο βασιλιάς τους δέχεται επίθεση εκείνη τη στιγμή. Εάν ο βασιλιάς δεν δέχεται επίθεση, τότε η παρτίδα ολοκληρώνεται με πατ και αποτέλεσμα ισοπαλία.

Κάθε τύπος πεσσού κινείται με διαφορετικό τρόπο από τους άλλους. Η μαύρες κουκίδες στα διπλανά διαγράμματα δείχνουν σε ποιά τετράγωνα μπορεί να μετακινηθεί ο κάθε τύπος πεσσού, θεωρώντας πως αυτά τα τετράγωνα δεν καταλαμβάνονται από άλλους πεσσούς οποιουδήποτε χρώματος.

  • The king moves one square in any direction. The king also has a special move called castling that involves also moving a rook.
  • The rook can move any number of squares along a rank or file, but cannot leap over other pieces. Along with the king, a rook is involved during the king's castling move.
  • The bishop can move any number of squares diagonally, but cannot leap over other pieces.
  • The queen combines the power of a rook and bishop and can move any number of squares along a rank, file, or diagonal, but cannot leap over other pieces.
  • The knight moves to any of the closest squares that are not on the same rank, file, or diagonal, thus the move forms an "L"-shape: two squares vertically and one square horizontally, or two squares horizontally and one square vertically. The knight is the only piece that can leap over other pieces.
  • The pawn can move forward to the unoccupied square immediately in front of it on the same file, or on its first move it can advance two squares along the same file, provided both squares are unoccupied (black dots in the diagram); or the pawn can capture an opponent's piece on a square diagonally in front of it on an adjacent file, by moving to that square (black "x"s). A pawn has two special moves: the en passant capture and promotion.

Castling[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Examples of castling

Once in every game, each king is allowed to make a special move, known as castling. Castling consists of moving the king two squares along the first rank toward a rook (which is on the player's first rank[note 1]) and then placing the rook on the last square that the king has just crossed. Castling is permissible under the following conditions:[2]

  • Neither the king nor the rook have previously moved during the game.
  • There cannot be any pieces between the king and the rook.
  • The king cannot be in check, nor can the king pass through squares that are under attack by enemy pieces, or move to a square where it would result in a check. Note that castling is permissible if the rook is attacked, or if the rook crosses a square that is attacked.

En passant[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Examples of pawn moves: promotion (left); en passant (right)

When a pawn advances two squares from its starting position and there is an opponent's pawn on an adjacent file next to its destination square, then the opponent's pawn can capture it en passant (in passing), and move to the square the pawn passed over. This can only be done on the very next move, otherwise the right to do so is forfeit. For example, in the animated diagram, the black pawn advances two squares from g7 to g5, and the white pawn on f5 can take it via en passant on g6 (but only on White's next move).

Promotion[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

When a pawn advances to the eighth rank, as a part of the move it is promoted and must be exchanged for the player's choice of queen, rook, bishop, or knight of the same color. Usually, the pawn is chosen to be promoted to a queen, but in some cases another piece is chosen; this is called underpromotion. In the animated diagram, the pawn on c7 can be advanced to the eighth rank and be promoted to an allowed piece. There is no restriction placed on the piece that is chosen on promotion, so it is possible to have more pieces of the same type than at the start of the game (for example, two queens).

Check[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

αβγδεζηθ
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α8
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[[File:Chess

t45.svg|22x22px|alt=θ8 |θ8

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[[File:Chess

t45.svg|22x22px|alt=θ7 |θ7

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α6
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γ6 μαύρος βασιλιάς
δ6
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t45.svg|22x22px|alt=θ6 |θ6

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t45.svg|22x22px|alt=θ5 |θ5

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t45.svg|22x22px|alt=θ3 |θ3

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t45.svg|22x22px|alt=θ2 |θ2

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The black king is in check from the white rook.

When a king is under immediate attack by one or two of the opponent's pieces, it is said to be in check. A response to a check is a legal move if it results in a position where the king is no longer under direct attack (that is, not in check). This can involve capturing the checking piece; interposing a piece between the checking piece and the king (which is possible only if the attacking piece is a queen, rook, or bishop and there is a square between it and the king); or moving the king to a square where it is not under attack. Castling is not a permissible response to a check. The object of the game is to checkmate the opponent; this occurs when the opponent's king is in check, and there is no legal way to remove it from attack. It is illegal for a player to make a move that would put or leave the player's own king in check.

In casual games it is common to announce "check" when putting the opponent's king in check, but this is not required by the rules of the game, and is not usually done in tournaments.

End of the game[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Win[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

αβγδεζηθ
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α8
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ζ8
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[[File:Chess

t45.svg|22x22px|alt=θ8 |θ8

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α7
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γ7
δ7
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[[File:Chess

t45.svg|22x22px|alt=θ7 |θ7

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α6
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[[File:Chess

t45.svg|22x22px|alt=θ6 |θ6

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t45.svg|22x22px|alt=θ5 |θ5

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[[File:Chess

t45.svg|22x22px|alt=θ4 |θ4

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α3
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ε3 μαύρος αξιωματικός
ζ3 μαύρος αξιωματικός
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α2
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[[File:Chess

t45.svg|22x22px|alt=θ2 |θ2

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White is in checkmate, being unable to escape attack by the black bishops.

Games can be won in the following ways:

  • Checkmate: The player whose turn it is to move is in check and has no legal move to escape check.
  • Πρότυπο:Chessgloss: Either player may resign, conceding the game to the opponent.[3] It is usually considered poor etiquette to play on in a truly hopeless position, and for this reason high-level games rarely end in checkmate.
  • Win on time: In games with a time control, a player wins if the opponent runs out of time, even if the opponent has a much superior position, as long as the player still has a theoretical possibility to checkmate the opponent.
  • Forfeit: A player who cheats, or violates the rules of the game, or violates the rules specified for the particular tournament can be forfeited. In high-level tournaments, players have been forfeited for such things as arriving late for the game (even by a matter of seconds), receiving a call or text on a cell phone, refusing to undergo a drug test, refusing to undergo a body search for electronic devices, and unsporting behavior (such as refusing to shake the opponent's hand).

Draw[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

αβγδεζηθ
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t45.svg|22x22px|alt=θ7 |θ7

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[[File:Chess

t45.svg|22x22px|alt=θ4 |θ4

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t45.svg|22x22px|alt=θ3 |θ3

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Black is not in check and has no legal move. The result is stalemate.

There are several ways games can end in a draw:

  • Draw by agreement: Draws are most commonly reached by mutual agreement between the players. The correct procedure is to verbally offer the draw, make a move, then start the opponent's clock. Traditionally, players have been allowed to agree to a draw at any point in the game, occasionally even without playing a move; in recent years efforts have been made to discourage short draws, for example by forbidding draw offers before move thirty.
  • Stalemate: The player whose turn it is to move has no legal move and is not in check.
  • Threefold repetition of position: This most commonly occurs when neither side is able to avoid repeating moves without incurring a disadvantage. In this situation, either player can claim a draw; this requires the players to keep a valid written record of the game so that the claim can be verified by the arbiter if challenged. The three occurrences of the position need not occur on consecutive moves for a claim to be valid. FIDE rules make no mention of perpetual check; this is merely a specific type of draw by threefold repetition.
  • Fifty-move rule: If during the previous 50 moves no pawn has been moved and no capture has been made, either player can claim a draw. There are several known endgames where it is possible to force a mate but it requires more than 50 moves before a pawn move or capture is made; examples include some endgames with two knights against a pawn and some pawnless endgames such as queen against two bishops. Historically, FIDE has sometimes revised the 50-move rule to make exceptions for these endgames, but at present (as of 2017) no exceptions are made. Some correspondence chess organizations do not enforce the fifty-move rule.[note 2]
  • Fivefold repetition of position: Similar to the threefold-repetition rule, but in this case neither player needs to claim the draw; thus a tournament director can intervene and declare the game to be drawn. This is a relatively recent (2014) addition to the FIDE rules.
  • Seventy-five-move rule: Similar to the fifty-move rule; however, if the final move in the sequence resulted in checkmate, this takes precedence. As with the fivefold-repetition rule, this applies independently of claims by the players, and allows a tournament director to intervene. This rule likewise is a recent addition to the FIDE rules.
  • Πρότυπο:Chessgloss: If neither player has a theoretical possibility to checkmate the opponent; for example, if a player has only the king and a knight left, and the opponent has only the king left, checkmate is impossible and the game is drawn by this rule. On the other hand, if both players have a king and a knight left, there is a highly unlikely yet theoretical possibility of checkmate, so this rule does not apply.
  • Draw on time: In games with a time control, the game is drawn if a player is out of time and the opponent has no theoretical possibility to checkmate the player.

Time control[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

Modern chess clocks

Chess games may also be played with a time control. If a player's time runs out before the game is completed, the game is automatically lost (provided the opponent has enough pieces left to deliver checkmate). The duration of a game ranges from long (or "classical") games which can take up to seven hours (even longer if adjournments are permitted) to bullet chess (under 3 minutes per player for the entire game). Intermediate between these are rapid chess games, lasting between 20 minutes and two hours per game, a popular time control in amateur weekend tournaments.

Time is controlled using a chess clock that has two displays, one for each player's remaining time. Analog chess clocks have been largely replaced by digital clocks, which allow for time controls with increments.

  1. «FIDE Laws of Chess taking effect from 1 July 2017». FIDE. Αρχειοθετήθηκε από το πρωτότυπο στις 5 August 2017. Ανακτήθηκε στις 1 June 2017. 
  2. «FIDE Laws of Chess, article 3.8.2». fide.com. World Chess Federation. Αρχειοθετήθηκε από το πρωτότυπο στις 5 August 2017. 
  3. Burgess (2000), p. 481
  4. «50 moves rules». FICGS. Αρχειοθετήθηκε από το πρωτότυπο στις 9 February 2010. Ανακτήθηκε στις 1 December 2009. 


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