Τουργκούτ Ρέις

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Τουργκούτ Ρεΐς
Dragut Monument Palm Globe Istanbul.jpg
Γενικές πληροφορίες
Όνομα στη
μητρική γλώσσα
Dragut (Αγγλικά) και Turgut Reis (Τουρκικά)
Γέννηση1485 (περίπου)[1][2][3]
Μπόντρουμ
Θάνατος23  Ιουνίου 1565
Μάλτα
Τόπος ταφήςΤρίπολη
Χώρα πολιτογράφησηςΟθωμανική Αυτοκρατορία
ΘρησκείαΣουνιτισμός
Πληροφορίες ασχολίας
Ιδιότητακουρσάρος
αξιωματικός
πειρατής
Στρατιωτική σταδιοδρομία
Βαθμός/στρατόςναύαρχος
Πόλεμοι/μάχεςΠόλεμοι Αψβούργων-Οθωμανών, Επιδρομή στο Γκόζο, Πολιορκία της Τρίπολης, Ναυμαχία της Πρέβεζας, ναυμαχία της Πόντσα, ναυμαχία της Τζέρμπα και Πολιορκία της Μάλτας (1565)
Αξιώματα και βραβεύσεις
ΑξίωμαΜπεηλέρμπεης της Τριπολιτανίας
Commons page Σχετικά πολυμέσα

Ο Τουργκούτ Ρέις (τουρκικά: Turgut Reis, 1485 – 23 Ιουνίου 1565) ήταν Mουσουλμάνος[4] Οθωμανός ναύαρχος, κυβερνήτης και ευγενής με τουρκική[5][6][7][8] ή ελληνική[9][10] καταγωγή απο τα Αρφαρά της Αλικαρνασσού (τώρα Turgutreis). Υπό τις διαταγές του, η ναυτική ισχύς της Οθωμανικής Αυτοκρατορίας επεκτάθηκε σε όλη τη Βόρεια Αφρική.[9] Αναγνωρισμένος για τη στρατιωτική του ιδιοφυΐα[11] και ως μεταξύ των «πιο επικίνδυνων»[12] κουρσάρων, ο Τουργκούτ Ρέις αναφέρεται ως «ο μεγαλύτερος πειρατής πολεμιστής όλων των εποχών»,[11] «αναμφίβολα ο πιο ικανός από όλους τους Τούρκους ηγέτες», και «ο βασιλιάς δίχως στέμμα της Μεσογείου ». Ένας Γάλλος ναύαρχος τον περιέγραψε ως «ένας ζωντανός χάρτης της Μεσογείου, αρκετά επιδέξιος στη στεριά για να συγκριθεί με τους καλύτερους στρατηγούς της εποχής. Κανείς δεν ήταν πιο άξιος από αυτόν να φέρει το όνομα του βασιλιά».[13]

Πέρα από τη θέση του ως Ναύαρχος και Κουρσάρος στο Ναυτικό της Οθωμανικής Αυτοκρατορίας υπό τον Σουλεϊμάν τον Μεγαλοπρεπή, ο Τουργκούτ Ρέις διορίστηκε επίσης Μπέης του Αλγερίου και της Τζέρμπα, Μπεηλέρμπεης της Μεσογείου, καθώς και Μπέης, και στη συνέχεια Πασάς, της Τρίπολης. Ενώ υπηρετούσε ως Πασάς της Τρίπολης, ο Τουργκούτ Ρέις κατασκεύασε εντυπωσιακά κτίρια στην πόλη, καθιστώντας την μια από τις πιο εντυπωσιακές πόλεις σε όλη τη βορειοαφρικανική ακτή.[14]


Παραπομπές[Επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα]

  1. 1,0 1,1 Faceted Application of Subject Terminology. 64269. Ανακτήθηκε στις 9  Οκτωβρίου 2017.
  2. 2,0 2,1 (Ιταλικά) sapere.it. Dragut.
  3. 3,0 3,1 (Ισπανικά) datos.bne.es. XX5625406.
  4. E. Hamilton Currey (2008). Flag of the Prophet: The Story of the Muslim Corsairs. Fireship Press. σελ. 168. ISBN 9781934757550. Brantome, that Dragut was born at a small village in Asia Minor called Charabulac, opposite to the island of Rhodes, and that his parents were Mahommedans. 
  5. Jamieson, Alan G. (2013). Lords of the Sea: A History of the Barbary Corsairs. Canada: Reaktion Books. σελ. 59. ISBN 978-1861899460. Desperate to find some explanation for the sudden resurgence of Muslim sea power in the Mediterranean after centuries of Christian dominance, Christian commentators in the sixth century (and later) pointed to the supposed Christian roots of the greatest Barbary corsair commanders. It was a strange kind of comfort. The Barbarossas certainly had a Greek Christian mother, but it now seems certain their father was a Muslim Turk. Attempts were made to give Greek Christian parents to Turgut Reis, but all the indications are that he came from a Muslim Turkish peasant family. 
  6. Cengiz Orhonlu (1968). Belgelerle Türk Tarihi Dergisi "Journal of Turkish History with Documents". pp. 69. "Turgut Reis is one of the well known of Turkish seaman of XVI. century Mediterranean. He is the son of a villager named Veli from the Menteşe - Serulus (Serulus or Seravulos) region. At early age he joined the seamen and became known. In short time he became a captain of levends. In some views his life as a corsair starts almost during the same time that of Barbarossa brothers. Later he began to operate on western Mediterranean seas, working together with Barbarossa brothers (Gelibolulu Mustafa Ali, Künhü'l-ahbar, University books, No: 5959, pg. 300a)". 
  7. ...However, when the sources are examined, There is no data to reach the judgment in question, moreover, all the evidence and clues that Turgut Reis came from a Muslim-Turkish family is pointing. «Cihan Yemişçi, Turgut Reis'in etnik menşei (Ethnic Origin of Turgut Reis) (in Turkish)». CS1 maint: Πολλαπλές ονομασίες: authors list (link)
  8. Svat Soucek,"Torghud Re'is",The Encyclopaedia of Islam (New Edition), Vol. 10, LeidenBrill, 2000, p. 570. 
  9. 9,0 9,1 Reynolds, Clark G. (1974). Command of the sea: the history and strategy of maritime empires. Morrow. σελίδες 120–121. ISBN 9780688002671. Ottomans extended their western maritime frontier across North Africa under the naval command of another Greek Moslem, Torghoud (or Dragut), who succeeded Barbarossa upon the latter's death in 1546. 
  10. Naylor, Phillip Chiviges (2009). North Africa: a history from antiquity to the present. University of Texas Press. σελίδες 120–121. ISBN 9780292719224. One of the most famous corsairs was Turghut (Dragut) (?–1565), who was of Greek ancestry and a protégé of Khayr al-Din. He participated in the successful Ottoman assault on Tripoli in 1551 against the Knights of St. John of Malta. 
  11. 11,0 11,1 Judith Miller (28 September 1986). «Malta, Where Suleiman Laid Siege». The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/1986/09/28/travel/malta-where-suleiman-laid-siege.html. Ανακτήθηκε στις 29 January 2017. «Dragut Reis was respected as the best Moslem seaman of his era, a true pirate, Governor of Tripoli and a military genius. Many historians believe that, had he lived, the siege would have succeeded. His death, however, prompted squabbling between the two senior Ottoman military officers, which led, in turn, to a series of disastrous decisions that helped save the knights. It was on this point... that Dragut was mortally wounded before the fall of St. Elmo when a fragment of rock thrown up by a cannonball struck his head. He would have died instantly had it not been for his thick turban. Death came days later in his tent, shortly after he received news from a messenger that St. Elmo had fallen at last.» 
  12. Braudel, Fernand (1995). The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean world in the age of Philip II, Volume 2. University of California Press. σελίδες 908–909. ISBN 9780520203303. Of all the corsairs who preyed on Sicilian wheat, Dragut (Turghut) was the most dangerous. A Greek by birth, he was now about fifty years old and behind him lay a long and adventurous career including four years in the Genoese galleys. 
  13. Balbi, Francesco (2011). The Siege of Malta, 1565. Boydell Press. σελίδες 63–64. ISBN 9781843831402. Born in 1485, he was eighty years old when he came to Malta for the siege. He had been a lieutenant under the famous Barbarossa and, on the latter's death, Dragut became the uncrowned king of the Mediterranean. He was known to his fellow Moslems as 'The Drawn Sword of Islam'. Although in his earlier career he had been at variance with the Sultan Suleiman, the latter had recently recognized Dragut's abilities by confirming him Governor of Tripoli. He knew the Maltese archipelago very well, having raided both islands on several occasions. Among his many successes against the Christians was his capture of Bastia in Corsica (when he had carried off seven thousand captives) and of Reggio in Italy (when he enslaved the whole population of the city). It was Dragut who had captured Tripoli from the Knights of St John in 1551. An old adversary of La Valette, he was undoubtedly the most able of all the Turkish leaders. He was described by a French admiral as 'A living chart of the Mediterranean, skillful enough on land to be compared to the finest generals of the time. No one was more worthy than he to bear the name of king'. 
  14. Naylor, Phillip Chiviges (2009). North Africa: a history from antiquity to the present. University of Texas Press. σελίδες 120–121. ISBN 9780292719224. One of the most famous corsairs was Turghut (Dragut) (?–1565), who was of Greek ancestry and a protégé of Khayr al-Din. ... While pasha, he built up Tripoli and adorned it, making it one of the most impressive cities along the North African littoral.