Διαφορά μεταξύ των αναθεωρήσεων του «Επαναστάσεις του 1989»

Μετάβαση στην πλοήγηση Πήδηση στην αναζήτηση
καμία σύνοψη επεξεργασίας
(νέο λήμμα)
 
* Beginning of the [[Special Period]] in [[Cuba]]|side1=Citizens of [[Eastern Bloc]] nations|side2=|leadfigures1=|leadfigures2=|leadfigures3=|howmany1=|howmany2=|howmany3=|casualties1=|casualties2=|casualties3=|injuries=|fatalities=|arrests=|detentions=|charged=|fined=|casualties_label=|notes=Also known as Fall of Communism, Fall of Stalinism, Collapse of Communism, Collapse of Socialism, Fall of Socialism, Autumn of Nations, Fall of Nations, European Spring}}<br />
[[Αρχείο:USSR_Map_timeline.gif|μικρογραφία|An animated series of maps showing the fall of the Communist regimes in Eastern Europe and the [[disintegration of the Soviet Union]] which later leads to some conflicts in the post-Soviet space]]
TheΟι '''Revolutionsεπαναστάσεις ofτου 1989''' formedαποτέλεσαν partμέρος ofενός aεπαναστατικού [[revolutionaryκύματος wave]]στα inτέλη theτης lateδεκαετίας 1980sτου and1980 earlyκαι 1990sστις thatαρχές resultedτης inδεκαετίας theτου end1990 ofπου communistοδήγησε ruleστο inτέλος της κομμουνιστικής κυριαρχίας στην [[CentralΚεντρική and Eastern EuropeΕυρώπη|Κεντρική]] andκαι beyond.[[Ανατολική TheΕυρώπη]] periodκαι isπέραν sometimesαυτής. calledΗ theπερίοδος '''Fallαποκαλείται ofμερικές Nations''' or theφορές '''AutumnΦθινόπωρο ofτων NationsΕθνών''',<ref name="NedelmannSztompka1993">{{cite book|title=Sociology in Europe: In Search of Identity|first1=Birgitta|last1=Nedelmann|first2=Piotr|last2=Sztompka|publisher=Walter de Gruyter|isbn=978-3-11-013845-0|date=1 January 1993|pages=1–|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=cOqTuIDuuMMC&pg=PA1}}</ref><ref name="BernhardSzlajfer2010">{{cite book|title=From the Polish Underground: Selections from Krytyka, 1978–1993|first1=Michael|last1=Bernhard|first2=Henryk|last2=Szlajfer|publisher=Penn State Press|isbn=0-271-04427-6|date=1 November 2010|pages=221–|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=YE29dvVxvdgC&pg=PA221}}</ref><ref name="Luciano2008">{{cite book|title=Cinema of Silvio Soldini: Dream, Image, Voyage|first=Bernadette|last=Luciano|publisher=Troubador|isbn=978-1-906510-24-4|year=2008|pages=77–|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=eBdKQYm4tyYC&pg=PA77}}</ref><ref name="Grofman2001">{{cite book|title=Political Science as Puzzle Solving|first=Bernard|last=Grofman|publisher=University of Michigan Press|isbn=0-472-08723-1|year=2001|pages=85–|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=SuIZ0wkeTmIC&pg=PA85}}</ref><ref name="SadurskiCzarnota2006">{{cite book|title=Spreading Democracy and the Rule of Law?: The Impact of EU Enlargemente for the Rule of Law, Democracy and Constitutionalism in Post-Communist Legal Orders|first1=Wojciech|last1=Sadurski|first2=Adam|last2=Czarnota|publisher=Springer|isbn=978-1-4020-3842-6|date=30 July 2006|pages=285–|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=_c9HAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA285|first3=Martin|last3=Krygier}}</ref> aένα playπαιχνίδι onμε theτον termόρο [[SpringΆνοιξη ofτων Nations]]Εθνών thatπου isμερικές sometimesφορές usedχρησιμοποιείται toγια describeνα theπεριγράψει τις [[Revolutionsεπαναστάσεις ofτου 1848]].
 
The events of the full-blown revolution first began in [[Polish People's Republic|Poland]] in 1989<ref>{{Citation|title=Between Past and Future: The Revolutions of 1989 and Their Aftermath|url=https://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&vid=ISBN9639116718&id=1pl5T45FwIwC&pg=PA85|last1=Antohi|last2=Tismăneanu|first1=Sorin|first2=Vladimir|author1-link=Sorin Antohi|author2-link=Vladimir Tismăneanu|page=85|chapter=Independence Reborn and the Demons of the Velvet Revolution|publisher=Central European University Press|ISBN=963-9116-71-8}}.</ref><ref name="lead">{{Cite news|url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/world_agenda/article6430833.ece|title=World Agenda: 20 years later, Poland can lead eastern Europe once again|last=Boyes|first=Roger|work=The Times|date=4 June 2009|location=UK|accessdate=4 June 2009}}</ref> and continued in [[People's Republic of Hungary|Hungary]], [[East Germany]], [[People's Republic of Bulgaria|Bulgaria]], [[Socialist Republic of Czechoslovakia|Czechoslovakia]] and [[Socialist Republic of Romania|Romania]]. One feature common to most of these developments was the extensive use of campaigns of [[civil resistance]], demonstrating popular opposition to the continuation of [[one-party rule]] and contributing to the pressure for change.<ref>{{Citation|last=Roberts|first=Adam|title=Civil Resistance in the East European and Soviet Revolutions|url=http://www.aeinstein.org/organizationse3a7.html|year=1991|author-link=Adam Roberts (scholar)|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110130071418/http://www.aeinstein.org/organizationse3a7.html|deadurl=yes|publisher=Albert Einstein Institution|format=[[Portable document format|PDF]]|ISBN=1-880813-04-1|archivedate=30 January 2011|df=dmy-all}}.</ref> Romania was the only [[Eastern Bloc]] country whose citizens overthrew its [[Communist regime]] violently.<ref>{{Citation|last=Sztompka|first=Piotr|title=Society in Action: the Theory of Social Becoming|url=https://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&vid=ISBN0226788156&id=sdSw3FgVOS4C&pg=PP16|author-link=Piotr Sztompka|page=x|chapter=Preface|publisher=University of Chicago Press|ISBN=0-226-78815-6}}.</ref> [[Tiananmen Square protests of 1989|Protests in Tiananmen Square]] (April–June 1989) failed to stimulate major political changes in [[China]], but [[Tank man|influential images]] of courageous defiance during that protest helped to precipitate events in other parts of the globe. On 4 June 1989, the trade union [[Solidarity (Polish trade union)|Solidarity]] won an overwhelming victory in a [[Polish legislative election, 1989|partially free election in Poland]], leading to the peaceful fall of Communism in that country in the summer of 1989. Also in June 1989, Hungary began dismantling its section of the physical [[Iron Curtain]], leading to an exodus of East Germans through Hungary, which destabilised East Germany. This led to mass demonstrations in cities such as [[Leipzig]] and subsequently to the fall of the [[Berlin Wall]] in November 1989, which served as the symbolic gateway to [[German reunification]] in 1990.
68.684

επεξεργασίες

Μενού πλοήγησης