Ημέρα Ανεξαρτησίας: Διαφορά μεταξύ των αναθεωρήσεων

Μετάβαση στην πλοήγηση Πήδηση στην αναζήτηση
καμία σύνοψη επεξεργασίας
Χωρίς σύνοψη επεξεργασίας
Χωρίς σύνοψη επεξεργασίας
| ιστορία =
| βασισμένο_σε =
| ηθοποιοί = [[Γουίλ Σμιθ]], [[Μπιλ Πούλμαν]], [[Τζεφ Γκόλντμπλουμ]], [[Μέρι ΜακΝτόντελ]], [[Τζουντ Χιρς]]Χιρστ, [[Μάργκαρετ Κόλιν]], [[Ράντι Κουέιντ]], [[Ρόμπερτ Λότζια]], [[Τζέιμς Ρέμπχορν]]Ρέντχορντ, [[Χάρβεϊ Φιρστάϊν]], [[Βίβικα Α. Φοξ]]
| αφηγητής =
| μουσική = Ντέιβιντ Άρνολντ
| επόμενη =
}}
Η '''Ημέρα Ανεξαρτησίας''' (''Independence Day'') είναι αμερικανικής παραγωγής [[ταινία επιστημονικής φαντασίας]] του 1996. Σεναριογράφος και σκηνοθέτης είναι ο [[Ρόλαντ Έμεριχ]] και στην ταινία πρωταγωνιστούν οι [[Γουίλ Σμιθ]], [[Μπιλ Πούλμαν]], [[Τζεφ Γκόλντμπλουμ]], [[Μέρι ΜακΝτόντελ]], [[Τζουντ Χιρς]]Χιρστ, [[Μάργκαρετ Κόλιν]], [[Ράντι Κουέιντ]], [[Ρόμπερτ Λότζια]], [[Τζέιμς Ρέμπχορν]]Ρέντχορντ, [[Χάρβεϊ Φιρστάϊν]], [[Βίβικα Α. Φοξ]] και [[Χάρι Κόνικ, Τζούνιορ]]. Επικεντρώνεται στις προσπάθειες των ανθρώπων να αντιμετωπίσουν την εισβολή εξωγήινων στη Γη σε μια ύστατη προσπάθεια τις 4 Ιουλίου - την ημέρα ανεξαρτησίας των Ηνωμένων Πολιτειών.
 
Η ταινία είχε προγραμματιστεί να προβληθεί τις 3 Ιουλίου 1996, όμως οι προβολές άρχισαν μια μέρα νωρίτερα σε πολλά θέατρα, λόγω της μεγάλης ζήτησης, την ίδια ημέρα που αρχίζει να εξελίσσεται η ιστορία της ταινίας. Η ταινία κέρδισε πάνω από 817,4 εκατομμύρια παγκοσμίως, και έγινε η πιο προσοδοφόρα ταινία του 1996<ref name="BOM"/> και για ένα μικρό χρονικό διάστημα, η δεύτερη πιο προσοδοφόρα ταινία όλων των εποχών, μετά το ''[[Τζουράσικ Παρκ]]'', το οποίο προβλήθηκε το 1993. Ήταν στο επίκεντρο στην αναγέννηση των ταινιών καταστροφής μεγάλης κλίμακας και επιστημονικής φαντασίας στο δεύτερο μισό της δεκαετίας του 1990. Η ταινία είχε θετικές κριτικές, ιδίως για τα ειδικά εφέ, τη μουσική, το πατριωτικό θέμα και την ηθοποιία κυρίως του Σμιθ και του Γκόλντμπλουμ. Άλλοι ήταν επικριτικοί για την ιστορία και την ανάπτυξη των χαρακτήρων. Κέρδισε ένα όσκαρ για καλύτερα οπτικά εφέ και επίσης ήταν υποψήφια για καλύτερο επεξεργασμένο ήχο.
 
Ένα σίκουελ έχει προγραμματιστεί να προβληθεί στην Ελλάδα από στις 2324 Ιουνίου 2016.
 
==Plot==
<!-- Per WP:FILMPLOT, plot summaries range between 400-700 words. Please be aware that all edits or adding detail to this section are logged and reviewed. Thank you. -->
 
On July 2, 1996, an enormous [[Mother ship|alien mothership]] that has one fourth the mass of the Moon enters orbit around Earth, deploying 36 smaller spacecraft, each {{convert|15|mi}} wide, that take positions over some of Earth's major cities and military bases. David Levinson, an [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology|MIT]]-trained satellite technician, decodes a signal embedded in the global satellite transmissions that he determines is a timer counting down to a coordinated attack. With the help of his former wife, [[White House Communications Director]] Constance Spano, Levinson, and his father Julius, gain access to the [[Oval Office]] and warn [[President of the United States|President]] Thomas J. Whitmore that the aliens are hostile. Whitmore orders large-scale evacuations of [[New York City]], [[Los Angeles]], and [[Washington D.C.]], but it is too late; the timer reaches zero and the ships activate devastating [[directed-energy weapon]]s, killing millions. Whitmore, the Levinsons, and a few others narrowly escape aboard [[Air Force One]] as the capital is destroyed, along with other locations over which the ships are positioned.
 
On July 3, international leaders begin ordering individual counterattacks. Their [[military aviation|aviation forces]] attack destroyer ships positioned above the ruins of the cities, but they are protected by [[Force field (fiction)|force field]]s. Each destroyer launches a swarm of attack fighters, each with its own shield as well, which wipe out the human fighter squadrons. Captain Steven Hiller, a pilot with the [[United States Marine Corps|USMC]] squadron [[VMFA-314]] based out of [[Marine Corps Air Station El Toro]], survives by luring his attacker to the enclosed spaces of the [[Grand Canyon]] and sacrificing his plane, forcing the alien to crash-land. He subdues the injured alien pilot and flags down a convoy of refugees, hitching a ride with former combat pilot Russell Casse. They transport the unconscious alien to nearby [[Area 51]] where Whitmore's group has landed. Through [[United States Secretary of Defense|Secretary of Defense]] Albert Nimzicki, they learn that a faction of the government has been involved in a [[UFO conspiracy theory|UFO conspiracy]] since 1947, when one of the invaders' attack fighters crashed in [[Roswell UFO incident|Roswell]]. Area 51 houses the refurbished alien fighter and three alien corpses recovered from the crash.
 
When eccentric scientist Brackish Okun examines the alien captured by Hiller, it regains consciousness and attacks. It [[Telepathy|telepathically]] invades Okun's mind and uses his vocal cords to communicate with Whitmore before launching a psychic attack against him. Whitmore sees visions of the alien's plans: their entire civilization travels from planet to planet, exterminating all indigenous life and harvesting the planet of all natural resources. After [[United States Secret Service|Secret Service]] agents and military personnel kill the alien, Whitmore reluctantly authorizes a [[Nuclear warfare|nuclear attack]]; a [[Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit|B-2 Spirit]] fires a nuclear cruise missile at an alien destroyer positioned above [[Houston]], but the ship remains intact.
 
On [[Independence Day (United States)|July 4]], Levinson demonstrates that the key to defeating the aliens lies in deactivating their force fields, and devises a way to do so by uploading a [[computer virus]] into the mothership. He proposes using the refurbished alien fighter to implement the plan, which Hiller volunteers to pilot. The two are able to implant the virus and [[Nuclear weapons delivery|deploy a nuclear weapon]] on board the mothership. With military pilots in short supply, Whitmore enlists the help of volunteers with flight experience, including Casse, and leads an attack on a destroyer ship bearing down on Area 51. With the alien's shields deactivated, the fighters are able to inflict damage but their supply of missiles is quickly exhausted. As the destroyer prepares to fire on the base, the last missile, equipped on Casse's plane, jams, and Casse decides to sacrifice his own life. He flies his plane [[kamikaze]]-style into the directed-energy weapon port, which results in an explosion that destroys the ship. Human resistance forces around the world successfully destroy the other craft using this vulnerability. As humankind is rejoicing in victory, Hiller and Levinson return to Area 51 unharmed and reunite with their families. They and military officers nearby accompany Whitmore and his daughter in watching the wreckage from the mothership burn up, resembling a [[fireworks]] display as it enters Earth's atmosphere.
 
==Cast==
<!-- Please do not change the order of the cast listing, as shown in the film's end credits. If there is an attempt to change the cast order, it will be reverted. Thank you. -->
* [[Will Smith]] as Captain Steven Hiller, a [[United States Marine Corps|Marine]] [[McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet|F/A-18]] pilot. Devlin and Emmerich had always envisioned an African-American for the role,<ref name="lat">{{cite web|author=[[Kenneth Turan]] |title=Independence Day review |work=[[Los Angeles Times]] |date=July 2, 1996 |url=http://www.calendarlive.com/movies/reviews/cl-movie960716-1,2,1312906.story |accessdate=July 8, 2008 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080619051208/http://www.calendarlive.com/movies/reviews/cl-movie960716-1%2C2%2C1312906.story |archivedate=June 19, 2008 |deadurl=yes |df=mdy-all }}</ref> and specifically wanted Smith after seeing his performance in ''[[Six Degrees of Separation (film)|Six Degrees of Separation]]''.<ref>Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 36.</ref>
* [[Bill Pullman]] as President Thomas J. Whitmore, a former fighter pilot. To prepare for the role, Pullman read [[Bob Woodward]]'s ''The Commanders'' and watched the documentary film ''[[The War Room]]''.<ref>Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 32.</ref>
* [[Τζεφ Γκόλντμπλουμ|Jeff Goldblum]] as David Levinson
* [[Mary McDonnell]] as First Lady Marilyn Whitmore
* [[Judd Hirsch]] as Julius Levinson. The character was based on one of Dean Devlin's uncles.<ref name="dvd">DVD commentary</ref>
* [[Robert Loggia]] as General William Grey, USMC, the head of the [[United States Space Command]]. Loggia modeled the character after World War II generals, particularly [[George S. Patton]].<ref>Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 42.</ref>
* [[Randy Quaid]] as Russell Casse
* [[Margaret Colin]] as Constance Spano
* [[Vivica A. Fox]] as Jasmine Dubrow
* [[James Rebhorn]] as Albert Nimzicki, the Secretary of Defense and, as former CIA Director, one of the few aware of the alien's existence due to the ship recovered at Roswell. Rebhorn described the character as being much like [[Oliver North]].<ref>Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 44.</ref> The character's eventual firing lampoons Joe Nimziki,<ref name="bnet">{{cite news | author=Stephen Galloway | title=Affleck's Schedule Busies After 'Harbor' | publisher=bnet.com | date=July 4, 2001 |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m5072/is_23_23/ai_75648237 | accessdate=September 6, 2008}}{{dead link|date=August 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}</ref> [[Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer|MGM]]'s head of advertising, who made life unpleasant for Devlin and Emmerich when studio executives forced recuts of ''[[Stargate (film)|Stargate]]''.<ref name="EW">{{cite web | author=Rebecca Ascher-Walsh | title=SPACE UNDER FIRE | work=[[Entertainment Weekly]] | date=July 12, 1996 |url=http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,293332,00.html | accessdate=July 8, 2008 }}</ref>
* [[Harvey Fierstein]] as Marty Gilbert
* [[Adam Baldwin]] as Major Mitchell, [[United States Air Force|USAF]], Area 51's commanding officer
* [[Brent Spiner]] as Dr. Brackish Okun, the unkempt and highly excitable scientist in charge of research at Area 51. Dr. Okun appeared to have been killed by an alien but returned in the sequel, where it was revealed that the character had merely been in a coma.<ref>{{cite news | title=Brent Spiner in Pasadena | publisher=classicscifi.org.uk | date=April 25, 1999 |url=http://www.classicscifi.org.uk/brent/okie-con.htm | accessdate=January 30, 2009 }}</ref> The character's appearance and verbal style are based upon those of visual effects supervisor Jeffrey A. Okun, with whom Emmerich had worked on ''Stargate''.<ref>Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 45.</ref>
* [[James Duval]] as Miguel Casse
* [[Bill Smitrovich]] as Lt. Col. Watson
* [[Harry Connick Jr.]] as Marine Captain Jimmy Wilder. Connick took over the part from [[Matthew Perry]], originally cast in the role.<ref name="doc">[http://www.digitallyobsessed.com/showreview.php3?ID=204 Independence Day (1996)] ''digitallyobsessed.com''. Retrieved July 8, 2008.</ref>
 
==Production==
 
===Development===
[[File:F-18s from VFMA-314 in formation.jpg|thumb|F/A-18 Hornets of [[VMFA-314]], "Black Knights"]]
The idea for the film came when Emmerich and Devlin were in Europe promoting their film ''[[Stargate (film)|Stargate]]''. A reporter asked Emmerich why he made a film with content like ''Stargate'' if he did not believe in aliens. Emmerich stated he was still fascinated by the idea of an alien arrival, and further explained his response by asking the reporter to imagine what it would be like to wake up one morning and to discover 15 mile-wide spaceships were hovering over the world's largest cities. Emmerich then turned to Devlin and said, "I think I have an idea for our next film."<ref name="dvd"/><ref name="ID41">Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 8.</ref><ref name="EW7">[http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,292721,00.html The 1996 Summer Movie Preview: July] ''Entertainment Weekly''. Retrieved July 8, 2008.</ref>
 
Emmerich and Devlin decided to expand on the idea by incorporating a large-scale attack, with Devlin saying he was bothered by the fact that "for the most part, in alien invasion movies, they come down to Earth and they're hidden in some back field ...[o]r they arrive in little spores and inject themselves into the back of someone's head."<ref name="ID42">Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 93.</ref> Emmerich agreed by asking Devlin if arriving from across the galaxy, "would you hide on a farm or would you make a big entrance?"<ref name="ID42"/> The two wrote the script during a month-long vacation in Mexico,<ref name="ID41" /> and just one day after they sent it out for consideration, [[20th Century Fox]] chairman [[Peter Chernin]] greenlit the screenplay.<ref name="EW"/> Pre-production began just three days later in February 1995.<ref name="dvd"/><ref name="ID41"/> The [[United States Armed Forces|U.S. military]] originally intended to provide personnel, vehicles, and costumes for the film; however, they backed out when the producers refused to remove the script's [[Area 51]] references.<ref name="dvd"/>
 
A then-record 3,000-plus special effects shots would ultimately be required for the film.<ref name="EW7"/> The shoot utilized on-set, in-camera special effects more often than [[Digimation|computer-generated effects]] in an effort to save money and get more authentic pyrotechnic results.<ref name="dvd"/> Many of these shots were accomplished at [[Hughes Aircraft]] in [[Culver City, California]], where the film's art department, [[motion control photography]] teams, [[pyrotechnics]] team, and model shop were headquartered. The production's model-making department built more than twice as many miniatures for the production than had ever been built for any film before by creating miniatures for buildings, city streets, aircraft, landmarks, and monuments.<ref name="Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 72">Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 72.</ref> The crew also built miniatures for several of the spaceships featured in the film, including a 30-foot (9.1 m) destroyer model<ref>Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 54.</ref> and a version of the mother ship spanning {{convert|12|ft}}.<ref>Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 121.</ref> City streets were recreated, then tilted upright beneath a high-speed camera mounted on a scaffolding filming downwards. An explosion would be ignited below the model, and flames would rise towards the camera, engulfing the tilted model and creating the rolling "wall of destruction" look seen in the film.<ref>Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 78.</ref> A model of the [[White House]] was also created, covering {{convert|10|ft}} by {{convert|5|ft}}, and was used in forced-perspective shots before being destroyed in a similar fashion for its destruction scene.<ref name="ID43">Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 82.</ref> The detonation took a week to plan<ref name="EW"/> and required 40 explosive charges.<ref name="ID43"/>
 
[[File:USA little colorado pano AZ.jpg|thumb|A World War II training aircraft with a camera mounted on its front navigated through the walls of the [[Little Colorado River]] [[canyon]], and the footage was used as pilot point-of-view shots.<ref>Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 112.</ref>]]
 
The film's aliens were designed by production designer [[Patrick Tatopoulos]]. The actual aliens in the film are diminutive and based on a design Tatopoulos drew when tasked by Emmerich to create an alien that was "both familiar and completely original".<ref>Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 86.</ref> These creatures wear "bio-mechanical" suits that are based on another design Tatopoulos pitched to Emmerich. These suits were {{convert|8|ft}} tall, equipped with 25 tentacles, and purposely designed to show it could not sustain a person inside so it would not appear to be a "man in a suit".<ref name= "Aberly and Engel p. 91">Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 91.</ref>
 
===Filming===
[[Principal photography]] began in July 1995 in New York City. A second unit gathered plate shots and [[establishing shot]]s of Manhattan, Washington D.C., an RV community in [[Flagstaff, Arizona]], and the [[Very Large Array]] on the [[Plains of San Agustin]], [[New Mexico]].<ref name= "Aberly and Engel p. 91"/> The main crew also filmed in nearby [[Cliffside Park, New Jersey]] before moving to the former [[Kaiser Ventures|Kaiser Steel mill]] in [[Fontana, California]] to film the post-attack Los Angeles sequences.<ref>Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 62.</ref> The production then moved to [[Wendover, Utah]], and [[West Wendover, Nevada]],<ref>Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 104.</ref> where the deserts doubled for [[Imperial Valley]], and the [[Wendover Airport]] doubled for the [[Marine Corps Air Station El Toro|El Toro]] and Area 51 exteriors.<ref>Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 96.</ref> It was here where Pullman filmed his pre-battle speech. Immediately before filming the scene, Devlin and Pullman decided to add "Today, we celebrate our Independence Day!" to the end of the speech. At the time, the production was nicknamed "ID4" because [[Warner Bros.]] owned the rights to the title ''Independence Day'', and Devlin had hoped that if Fox executives noticed the addition in [[dailies]], the impact of the new dialogue would help them to win the rights to the title.<ref name="dvd"/> The right to use the title was eventually won two weeks later.<ref name="EW"/>
 
The production team moved to the [[Bonneville Salt Flats]] to film three scenes, then returned to California to film in various places around Los Angeles, including Hughes Aircraft where sets for the cable company and Area 51 interiors were constructed at a former aircraft plant. Sets for the latter included corridors containing windows that were covered with blue material. The filmmakers originally intended to use the [[chroma key]] technique to make it appear as if activity was happening on the other side of the glass; but the [[compositing|composited images]] were not added to the final print because production designers decided the blue panels gave the sets a "clinical look".<ref>Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 98.</ref> The attacker hangar set contained an attacker mock-up {{convert|65|ft}} wide<ref name="Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 72"/> that took four months to build.<ref name="EW"/> The White House interior sets used had already been built for ''[[The American President]]'' and had previously been used for ''[[Nixon (film)|Nixon]]''.<ref name="ID43"/> Principal photography completed on November 3, 1995.<ref name="EW"/>
 
The film originally depicted Russell Casse being rejected as a volunteer for the July 4 aerial counteroffensive because of his alcoholism. He then uses a stolen missile tied to his red biplane to carry out his suicide mission. According to Dean Devlin, test audiences responded well to the scene's irony and comedic value.<ref name="dvd"/> However, the scene was re-shot to include Russell's acceptance as a volunteer, his crash course on flying modern fighter aircraft, and him flying an F/A-18 instead of the biplane. Devlin preferred the alteration because the viewer now witnesses Russell ultimately making the decision to sacrifice his life,<ref name="dvd"/> and seeing the biplane keeping pace and flying amongst F/A-18s was "just not believable".<ref>[http://www.amazon.ca/dp/B00003Q43A "Independence Day."] ''amazon.ca''. Retrieved March 4, 2008.</ref> The film was officially completed on June 20, 1996.<ref name="EW"/>
 
===Music===
The [[Grammy Award]]-winning<ref name="NYTimesGrammy">{{cite web | url=https://www.nytimes.com/1997/02/28/arts/winners-of-the-1997-grammy-awards.html | title=Winners of the 1997 Grammy Awards | publisher=The New York Times | date=28 February 1997 | accessdate=16 April 2016}}</ref> score for the film was composed by [[David Arnold]] and recorded with an orchestra of 90, a choir of 46, "and every last ounce of stereotypical Americana he could muster for the occasion".<ref name="Filmtracks1997">{{cite web | url=http://www.filmtracks.com/titles/id4.html | title=Independence Day | publisher=Filmtracks | date=24 September 1996 | accessdate=16 April 2016}}</ref> The film's producer Dean Devlin commented that "you can leave it up to a Brit to write some of the most rousing and patriotic music in the history of American cinema."<ref name="Filmtracks1997"/> The soundtrack has received two official CD releases. RCA released a 50-minute album at the time of the film's release, then in 2010, [[La-La Land Records]] released a limited edition 2-CD set that comprised the complete score plus 12 alternate cues.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://lalalandrecords.com/Site/IndependenceDay.html|title=film music - movie music- film score - Independence Day - David Arnold - Limited Edition|publisher=}}</ref> The premiere of ''Independence Day'' live<ref name="RAHaliens ">{{cite web | url=http://www.royalalberthall.com/about-the-hall/news/2016/february/david-arnold-aliens-and-a-full-orchestra-blasting-into-the-royal-albert-hall/ | title=David Arnold, aliens and a full orchestra invade the Royal Albert Hall | publisher=Royal Albert Hall | date=8 February 2016 | accessdate=16 April 2016 | author=Burin, Rick}}</ref> will take place at the [[Royal Albert Hall]] in September 2016, with the film's score performed live to a screening of the film.<ref name="RAHID4live">{{cite web | url=http://www.royalalberthall.com/tickets/events/2016/independence-day/ | title=Independence Day Live at the Royal Albert Hall | publisher=Royal Albert Hall | accessdate=16 April 2016}}</ref> This celebrates the twentieth anniversary of the film's release, and the event will also feature a pre-film talk by David Arnold.
 
==Release==
While the film was still in post-production, Fox began a massive marketing campaign to help promote the film, beginning with the airing of a dramatic commercial during [[Super Bowl XXX]], for which it paid $1.3 million.<ref>[https://archive.is/20120805180615/http://www.uwec.edu/newsreleases/highlights/011205superbowl.htm "UW-Eau Claire Marketing Researchers Study Super Bowl Ad Successes."] ''University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire''. Retrieved October 1, 2007.</ref> The film's subsequent success at the box office resulted in the trend of using [[Super Bowl advertising|Super Bowl air time]] to kick off the advertising campaign for potential blockbusters.<ref name="mojoad">[http://www.boxofficemojo.com/news/?id=1703&p=.htm Analysis: Super Bowl Movie Ads Lack Luster] ''boxofficemojo.com''. Retrieved July 8, 2008.</ref><ref name="JS">{{cite news | author = Rick Romell | title = Ads the real stars of Super Bowl | publisher = [[Milwaukee Journal Sentinel]] | date = January 27, 2007 |url=http://www.jsonline.com/story/index.aspx?id=557839 | accessdate=July 8, 2008}}</ref>
 
Fox's Licensing and Merchandising division also entered into co-promotional deals with [[Apple Inc.]] The co-marketing project was dubbed "The Power to Save the World" campaign, in which the company used footage of David using his [[PowerBook]] laptop in their print and television advertisements.<ref name="Mac">[http://www.informedusa.com/t/independanceday.html Apple Ties in With 20th Century Fox "Independence Day] ''The online Macinstuff Times''. Retrieved July 8, 2008.</ref> [[Trendmasters]] entered a merchandising deal with the film's producers to create a line of [[tie-in]] toys.<ref name="EW5">{{cite news | author = Kenneth M. Chanko | title = Independence Play | publisher = Entertainment Weekly | date = July 12, 1996 |url=http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,293331,00.html | accessdate=July 8, 2008}}</ref> In exchange for [[product placement]], Fox also entered into co-promotional deals with [[Molson Coors Brewing Company]] and [[Coca-Cola]].<ref>[http://www.movie-moron.com/?p=544 Top Ten: Most Shameless Uses Of Product Placement In Film] ''movie-moron.com''. Retrieved July 8, 2008.</ref>
 
The film was marketed with several taglines, including: "We've always believed we weren't alone. On July 4, we'll wish we were", "Earth. Take a good look. It could be your last", and "Don't make plans for August". The weekend before the film's release, the Fox Network aired a half-hour special on the film, the first third of which was a spoof news report on the events that happen in the film. [[Roger Ebert]] attributed most of the film's early success to its [[Trailer (promotion)|teaser trailers]] and marketing campaigns, acknowledging them as "truly brilliant".<ref name="ear">[http://bventertainment.go.com/tv/buenavista/ebertandroeper/index2.html?sec=6&subsec=independence+day ''Ebert & Roeper''.]{{dead link|date=April 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} ''atthemovies.tv''. Retrieved July 8, 2008.</ref>
 
[[File:id4whitehouse.jpg|thumb|The shot of the White House's destruction was the focus of the film's marketing campaign. A fleeing helicopter was added to the shot in the final print.]]
The film had its official premiere held at Los Angeles' now-defunct Mann Plaza Theater on June 25, 1996.<ref name="var">{{cite news | author = Todd McCarthy | title = Independence Day Review | publisher = [[Variety (magazine)|Variety]] | date = July 1, 1996 |url=http://www.variety.com/review/VE1117905388.html?categoryid=31&cs=1 | accessdate=July 8, 2008}}</ref> It was then screened privately at the White House for President [[Bill Clinton]] and his family<ref name="time">{{cite news | author = Richard Corliss | title = THE INVASION HAS BEGUN! | publisher = [[Time (magazine)|TIME]] | date = July 8, 1996 |url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,984815,00.html | accessdate=July 8, 2008 | authorlink = Richard Corliss}}</ref> before receiving a nationwide release in the United States on July 2, 1996, a day earlier than its previously scheduled opening.<ref name="sfc">{{cite news | author = Mick LaSalle | title = Declaration of "Independence" | publisher = [[San Francisco Chronicle]] | date = July 2, 1996 |url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/1996/07/02/DD57773.DTL | accessdate=March 4, 2008 | authorlink = Mick LaSalle}}</ref>
 
After a six-week, $30 million marketing campaign, ''Independence Day'' was released on [[VHS]] on November 22, 1996.<ref>[http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb4360/is_199609/ai_n15228087 Independence Day blitz.] ''HighBeam Research''. Retrieved July 8, 2008.</ref> It became available on DVD on June 27, 2000, and has since been re-released, in several different versions of this format, with varying supplemental material, including one instance where it was packaged with a [[Lenticular printing|lenticular cover]].<ref>[http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0116629/dvd#B000O76T86 "DVD details for Independence Day."] ''IMDb''. Retrieved March 4, 2008.</ref> Often accessible on these versions is a special edition of the film, which features nine minutes of additional footage not seen in the original theatrical release.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.bbfc.co.uk/releases/independence-day-extended-edition-film | title=''Independence Day: Extended Edition'' (12A) | work=[[British Board of Film Classification]] | date=May 27, 2016 | accessdate=May 30, 2016}}</ref> ''Independence Day'' became available on [[Blu-ray Disc|Blu-ray]] in the United Kingdom on December 24, 2007,<ref>[http://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/B000WBZZB6 "Independence Day Blu-ray"] Amazon UK Retrieved July 6, 2008.</ref> and in North America on March 11, 2008<ref>[http://www.blu-ray.com/movies/movies.php?id=199 "Independence Day (Blu-ray)."] ''Blu-ray''. Retrieved July 5, 2008.</ref> and in Australia on March 5, 2008.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ezydvd.com.au/blu-ray/independence-day-blu-ray/dp/797919|title=Buy Independence Day (Blu-ray) on Blu-ray from EzyDVD.com.au|publisher=}}</ref> The initial single-disc releases only feature the theatrical cut and a few extras, as per the single-disc DVDs. For its 2016 20th Anniversary, the film was re-released on 2-disc Blu-ray and DVD, 4K Ultra HD Blu-ray and Digital HD<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ign.com/articles/2016/03/15/independence-day-20th-anniversary-blu-ray-announcement-documentary-clip-and-packaging|title=Independence Day: 20th Anniversary Blu-ray Announcement, Documentary Clip and Packaging|first=By Jim|last=Vejvoda|publisher=}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.blu-ray.com/movies/Independence-Day-4K-Blu-ray/151490/ | title=Independence Day 4K Blu-ray | publisher=Blu-ray.com | accessdate=1 July 2016}}</ref> The 20th Anniversary Editions feature both the theatrical and extended versions, all the extras of the previous 2-disc DVDs and more besides.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.highdefdigest.com/news/show/20th_Century_Fox/Disc_Announcements/independence-day-20th-anniversary-edition-to-invade-4k-ultra-hd-bluray/31529|title='Independence Day: 20th Anniversary Edition' to Invade 4K Ultra HD Blu-ray - High-Def Digest|publisher=}}</ref>
 
===Censorship===
In [[Lebanon]], certain Jewish and Israel-related content in the film was censored. One cut scene involved Judd Hirsch's character donning a [[kippah]], and leading soldiers and White House officials in a Jewish prayer. Other removed footage showed Israeli and Arab troops working together in preparation for countering the alien invasion. The Lebanese [[Shia Islam|Shi'a]] [[Islamist]] [[militant]] group [[Hezbollah]] called for Muslims to boycott the film, describing it as "propaganda for the so-called genius of the Jews and their concern for humanity." In response, Jewish actor Jeff Goldblum said: "I think Hezbollah has missed the point: the film is not about American Jews saving the world; it's about teamwork among people of different religions and nationalities to defeat a common enemy."<ref>{{cite news|date=January 26, 1997 |title=Making Money Abroad, And Also a Few Enemies |url=https://www.nytimes.com/1997/01/26/movies/making-money-abroad-and-also-a-few-enemies.html?pagewanted=all |newspaper=The New York Times }}</ref><ref>{{cite news|date=November 12, 1996 |title=A Jewish Hero Isn't Kosher; Lebanon Censors 'Independence Day' |url= |newspaper=The Washington Post }}</ref>
 
===Twentieth anniversary release===
The film had both its twentieth anniversary and premiere at a special live-orchestral screening performance at the [[Royal Albert Hall]] on September 22, 2016. The [[Royal Philharmonic Orchestra]], conducted by the original orchestrator Nicholas Dodd, performed/ the score live<ref name="ID4Live">{{cite web | url=http://www.royalalberthall.com/about-the-hall/news/2016/february/david-arnold-aliens-and-a-full-orchestra-blasting-into-the-royal-albert-hall/ | title=David Arnold, aliens and a full orchestra invade the Royal Albert Hall | publisher=Royal Albert Hall | date=8 February 2016 | accessdate=15 April 2016 | author=Burin, Rick}}</ref> during the film, and the film's composer, [[David Arnold]], was a presenter at the event.
 
==Reception==
 
===Box office===
[[File:ID4TIME.jpg|thumb|One of the film's creatures on the cover of the July 8, 1996 issue of ''[[Time (magazine)|Time]]''.]]
''Independence Day'' was the highest-grossing film of 1996, beating ''[[Twister (1996 film)|Twister]]'' and ''[[Mission: Impossible (film)|Mission Impossible]]''.<ref name="BOM"/> In the United States, it earned $104.3 million in its opening week,<ref name="EW4">{{cite news | author = A.J. Jacobs | title = The Day After | publisher = Entertainment Weekly | date = July 19, 1996 |url=http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,293427,00.html | accessdate=July 8, 2008}}</ref> including $96.1 million during its five-day holiday opening, and $50.2 million during its opening weekend.<ref name="numbers">[http://www.the-numbers.com/movies/1996/0ID4.php "Independence Day Box Office Data."] ''the-numbers.com''. Retrieved March 4, 2008.</ref> All three figures broke records set by ''[[Jurassic Park (film)|Jurassic Park]]'' three years earlier.<ref name="EW4"/> That film's sequel, ''[[The Lost World: Jurassic Park]]'', claimed all three records when it was released the following year. ''Independence Day'' stayed in the number-one spot for three consecutive weeks, and grossed $306,169,268 in North America<ref name="BOM"/> and $511,231,623 in other territories during its theatrical run.<ref name="BOM"/> The combined total of $817,400,891 once trailed only the worldwide earnings of ''Jurassic Park'' as the highest of all time.<ref>[http://www.10000bcmovie.com/ "William Fay Bio."] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120218101034/http://www.10000bcmovie.com/ |date=February 18, 2012 }} ''www.10000bcmovie.com''. Retrieved March 4, 2008.</ref> [[Box Office Mojo]] estimates that the film sold over 69.26 million tickets in the US.<ref>{{cite web|accessdate=May 31, 2016|url=http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=independenceday.htm&adjust_yr=1&p=.htm|title=Independence Day (1996)|publisher=Box Office Mojo}}</ref> It has been surpassed by multiple 21st century films since, and currently holds the [[List of highest-grossing films|51st-highest worldwide grossing film of all time]]. Hoping to capitalize on the film's success, several studios released large-scale [[disaster film]]s,<ref name=EW6 /> and the already rising interest in science fiction-related media was further increased by the film's popularity.<ref name=time />
 
A month after the film's release, jewelry designers and marketing consultants reported an increased interest in [[dolphin]]-themed jewelry, as the character Jasmine ([[Vivica A. Fox]]) wears dolphin earrings, and is presented with a wedding ring featuring a gold dolphin.<ref name="EW3">{{cite news | author = Degen Pener | title = Day of the Dolphin | publisher = Entertainment Weekly | date = August 9, 1996 |url=http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,293634,00.html | accessdate=July 8, 2008}}</ref>
 
===Critical response===
[[Rotten Tomatoes]], a [[review aggregator]], reports that 61% of 62 surveyed critics gave the film a positive review; the average rating is 6.4/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "The plot is thin and so is character development, but as a thrilling, spectacle-filled summer movie, ''Independence Day'' delivers."<ref name=rotom>{{cite web |url= http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/1071806-independence_day/ |title=Independence Day (1996) |work=[[Rotten Tomatoes]] |publisher=[[Flixster|Flixster, Inc.]] |accessdate=June 15, 2015}}</ref> On [[Metacritic]], the film has a score of 59 out of 100 based on 19 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews".<ref name="meta">[http://www.metacritic.com/movie/independence-day "Independence Day."] ''Metacritic''. Retrieved October 16, 2007.</ref> Audiences polled by [[CinemaScore]] gave the film an average grade of "A" on an A+ to F scale.<ref name="CinemaScore">{{cite web|url=https://m.cinemascore.com |title=CinemaScore |work=cinemascore.com }}{{dead link|date=April 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}</ref>
 
Critics wrote that the film has "cardboard" and "stereotypical" characters,<ref name="lat"/><ref name="sfc"/><ref name="dcp">{{cite news | author = Kevin McManus | title = A Sci-Fi Flash in the Pan | publisher = [[Washington Post]] | date = July 5, 1996 |url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/review96/independencedaymcman.htm | accessdate=July 8, 2008}}</ref><ref name="EW8">{{cite news | author = Schwarzbaum | title = Independence Day (1996) | publisher = Entertainment Weekly | date = July 12, 1996 |url=http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,293279,00.html | accessdate=July 8, 2008}}</ref><ref name="nw">{{cite news|author=David Ansen |title=Independence Day |publisher=[[Newsweek]] |date=July 8, 1996 |url=http://www.msnbc.com/m/nw/a/m/mv_i.asp#Independence%20Day |accessdate=July 8, 2008 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080522202447/http://www.msnbc.com/m/nw/a/m/mv_i.asp#Independence |archivedate=May 22, 2008 |authorlink=David Ansen |deadurl=yes |df=mdy-all }}</ref> and weak dialogue.<ref name="EW6">{{cite news | author = Gary Susman | title = Apocalypse Wow | publisher = Entertainment Weekly | date = May 25, 2004 |url=http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,641738_7,00.html | accessdate=July 8, 2008}}</ref><ref name="nw"/><ref name="sfe">{{cite news | author = Barbara Shulgasser | title = THESE SCENES ARE SELF-EVIDENT | publisher = [[San Francisco Examiner]] | date = July 2, 1996 |url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/e/a/1996/07/02/STYLE6573.dtl | accessdate=July 8, 2008}}</ref><ref name="ac">{{cite news | author = Marc Savlov | title = Independence Day | publisher = [[Austin Chronicle]] | date = July 8, 1996 |url=http://www.austinchronicle.com/gyrobase/Calendar/Film?Film=oid%3a138121 | accessdate=July 8, 2008}}</ref> Yet the shot of the White House's destruction has been declared a milestone in visual effects, and one of the most memorable scenes of the 1990s.<ref>[http://www.filmsite.org/visualeffects16.html Visual and Special Effects Film Milestones.] ''filmsite.org''. Retrieved July 8, 2008.</ref><ref name="fs3">[http://www.filmsite.org/90sintro3.html Film History of the 1990s] ''filmsite.org''. Retrieved July 8, 2008.</ref> In a 2010 poll, readers of ''[[Entertainment Weekly]]'' rated it the second-greatest summer film of the previous 20 years, ranking only behind ''[[Jurassic Park (film)|Jurassic Park]]''.<ref>"Summer Blockbusters: The New Generation," Entertainment Weekly, Page 32, Issue #1112, July 23, 2010.</ref>
 
[[Mick LaSalle]] of the ''[[San Francisco Chronicle]]'' gave the film his highest rating, declaring it the "[[apotheosis]]" of ''[[Star Wars (film)|Star Wars]]''.<ref name="sfc"/> Lisa Schwarzbaum of ''Entertainment Weekly'' gave it a B+ for living up to its massive hype, adding "charm is the foremost of this epic's contemporary characteristics. The script is witty, knowing, cool."<ref name="EW8"/> Eight years later, ''Entertainment Weekly'' would rate the film as one of the best disaster films of all time.<ref name="EW6"/> [[Kenneth Turan]] of the ''[[Los Angeles Times]]'' felt that the film did an "excellent job conveying the boggling immensity of [the] extraterrestrial vehicles [...] and panic in the streets" and the scenes of the alien attack were "disturbing, unsettling and completely convincing".<ref name="lat"/>
 
However, the film's nationalistic overtones were widely criticized by reviewers outside the U.S. ''Movie Review UK'' described the film as "a mish-mash of elements from a wide variety of alien invasion movies and gung-ho American [[jingoism]]."<ref>{{cite web|accessdate=September 4, 2008|url=http://www.film.u-net.com/Movies/Reviews/Independence_Day.html|title=Independence Day (1996) |publisher=Movie Reviews UK }}</ref> The speech during which Whitmore states that victory in the coming war would see the entire world henceforth describe July 4 as its [[List of national independence days|Independence Day]], was described in a [[BBC]] review as "the most jaw-droppingly pompous soliloquy ever delivered in a mainstream Hollywood movie."<ref>{{cite web|accessdate=September 6, 2008|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/films/2000/12/18/independence_day_1996_review.shtml|title=Independence Day (1996) |publisher=BBC|date=December 18, 2000|author=Smith, Neil }}</ref> In 2003, readers of ''[[Empire (film magazine)|Empire]]'', voted the scene that contained this speech as the "Cheesiest Movie Moment of All-Time".<ref name="fs">[http://www.filmsite.org/worstquotes.html Top 10 Worst Quotes or Lines From the Movies] ''filmsite.org''. Retrieved July 8, 2008.</ref> Conversely, ''Empire'' critic [[Kim Newman]] gave the film a [[Star (classification)|five-star rating]] in the magazine's original review of the film.<ref name="meta"/>
 
Several critics expressed disappointment with the quality of the film's special effects. ''[[Newsweek]]''{{'}}s [[David Ansen]] claimed the special effects were of no better caliber than those seen nineteen years earlier in ''[[Star Wars (film)|Star Wars]]''.<ref name="nw"/> Todd McCarthy of ''[[Variety (magazine)|Variety]]'' felt the production's budget-conscious approach resulted in "cheesy" shots that lacked in quality relative to the effects present in films directed by [[James Cameron]] and [[Steven Spielberg]].<ref name="var"/> In his review, [[Roger Ebert]] took note of a lack of imagination in the spaceship and creature designs.<ref name="ebert">{{cite news | author = Roger Ebert | title = Independence Day | publisher = [[Chicago Sun-Times]] | date = July 2, 1996 |url=http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19960702/REVIEWS/607020301/1023 | accessdate=July 8, 2008 | authorlink = Roger Ebert}}</ref> [[Gene Siskel]] expressed the same sentiments in his ''[[At the Movies (U.S. TV series)|At the Movies]] review of the film.<ref name="ear"/>{{Dead link|date=December 2013}}
 
'''[[American Film Institute]] lists'''
* [[AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills]] – Nominated<ref>[http://www.afi.com/Docs/100Years/thrills400.pdf AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills Nominees]</ref>
* [[AFI's 10 Top 10]] – Nominated Science Fiction Film<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.afi.com/drop/ballot.pdf|title=AFI.com Error|publisher=}}</ref>
 
===Accolades===
{| class="wikitable"
|- style="background:#b0c4de; text-align:center;"
! Award
! Subject
! Nominee
! Result
|-
|rowspan=1|[[Cinema Audio Society Awards|CAS Awards]]<ref name="awards">[http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0116629/awards "Awards for Independence Day."] ''IMDb''. Retrieved September 4, 2012.</ref>
|rowspan=2|Best Sound Mixing
|rowspan=2|[[Chris Carpenter]], [[Bob Beemer]], [[Bill W. Benton]] and [[Jeff Wexler]]
|{{Nom}}
|-
|rowspan=2|[[Academy Award]]s<ref name="awards"/>
|{{Nom}}
|-
|[[Academy Award for Best Visual Effects|Best Visual Effects]]
|rowspan=2|[[Volker Engel]], [[Douglas Smith (special effects artist)|Douglas Smith]], [[Clay Pinney]] and [[Joe Viskocil]]
|{{Won}}
|-
|rowspan=11|[[Saturn Award]]s<ref name="awards"/>
|[[Saturn Award for Best Special Effects|Best Special Effects]]
|{{Won}}
|-
|[[Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film|Best Science Fiction Film]]
|
|{{Won}}
|-
|[[Saturn Award for Best Director|Best Director]]
|[[Roland Emmerich]]
|{{Won}}
|-
|[[Saturn Award for Best Writing|Best Writer]]
|Roland Emmerich and [[Dean Devlin]]
|{{Nom}}
|-
|[[Saturn Award for Best Costume|Best Costumes]]
|Joseph A. Porro
|{{Nom}}
|-
|[[Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actor|Best Supporting Actor]]
|[[Brent Spiner]]
|{{Nom}}
|-
|[[Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actor|Best Supporting Actress]]
|[[Vivica A. Fox]]
|{{Nom}}
|-
|[[Saturn Award for Best Performance by a Younger Actor|Best Young Actor]]
|[[James Duval]]
|{{Nom}}
|-
|[[Saturn Award for Best Music|Best Music]]
|[[David Arnold]]
|{{Nom}}
|-
|rowspan=2|[[Saturn Award for Best Actor|Best Actor]]
|[[Jeff Goldblum]]
|{{Nom}}
|-
|rowspan=2|[[Will Smith]]
|{{Nom}}
|-
|rowspan=2|[[Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Awards|Kids' Choice Awards]]<ref name="awards"/>
|Favorite Movie Actor
|{{Nom}}
|-
|[[Kids' Choice Award for Favorite Movie|Favorite Movie]]
|
|{{Won}}
|-
|rowspan=1|[[Hugo Award]]s<ref name="awards"/>
|[[Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation|Best Dramatic Presentation]]
|
|{{Nom}}
|-
|rowspan=1|[[Young Artist Award]]s<ref name="awards"/>
|Best Young Actor – Age 10 or Under
|[[Ross Bagley]]
|{{Nom}}
|-
|rowspan=1|[[People's Choice Awards]]<ref name="awards"/>
|Favorite Dramatic Motion Picture
|
|{{Won}}
|-
|rowspan=5|[[MTV Movie Awards]]<ref name="awards"/>
|[[MTV Movie Award for Best Action Sequence|Best Action Sequence]]
|Aliens blow up cities
|{{Nom}}
|-
|[[MTV Movie Award for Best Movie|Best Movie]]
|
|{{Nom}}
|-
|Best Male Performance
|Will Smith
|{{Nom}}
|-
|Best Breakthrough Performance
|Vivica A. Fox
|{{Nom}}
|-
|Best Kiss
|Will Smith and Vivica A. Fox
|{{Won}}
|-
|rowspan=1|[[Grammy Award]]s<ref name="awards"/>
|Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television
|David Arnold
|{{Won}}
|-
|rowspan=2|[[Satellite Award]]s<ref name="awards"/>
|Outstanding Visual Effects
|Volker Engel, Douglas Smith, Clay Pinney and Joe Viskocil
|{{Won}}
|-
|Outstanding Film Editing
|[[David Brenner (editor)|David Brenner]]
|{{Won}}
|-
|rowspan=1|[[Mainichi Film Award]]s<ref name="awards"/>
|rowspan=3|Best Foreign Language Film
|
|{{Won}}
|-
|rowspan=1|[[Japan Academy Prize (film)|Japanese Academy Awards]]<ref name="awards"/>
|
|{{Nom}}
|-
|rowspan=1|[[Amanda Award]]s<ref name="awards"/>
|
|{{Nom}}
|-
|rowspan=1|[[Blockbuster Entertainment Awards]]<ref name="awards"/>
|Favorite Actor – Sci-Fi
|rowspan=2|Will Smith
|{{Won}}
|-
|rowspan=8|Universe Reader's Choice Awards<ref name="awards"/>
|Best Actor
|{{Won}}
|-
|Best Supporting Actress
|Vivica A. Fox
|{{Won}}
|-
|Best Science Fiction Film
|
|{{Won}}
|-
|Best Special Effects
|Volker Engel, Douglas Smith, Clay Pinney and Joe Viskocil
|{{Won}}
|-
|Best Director
|Roland Emmerich
|{{Won}}
|-
|Best Score
|David Arnold
|{{Won}}
|-
|Best Cinematography
|[[Karl Walter Lindenlaub]]
|{{Won}}
|-
|Best Writing
|rowspan=2|Roland Emmerich and Dean Devlin
|{{Won}}
|-
|rowspan=1|[[Golden Raspberry Award]]s<ref name="awards"/>
|Worst Written Film Grossing Over $100 Million
|{{Nom}}
|-
|}
 
===Legacy===
Disaster elements portrayed in ''Independence Day'' represented a significant turning point for Hollywood [[Blockbuster (entertainment)|blockbuster films]]. With advancements in CGI special effects, events depicting mass destruction became commonplace in films that soon followed, such as 1998's ''[[Armageddon (1998 film)|Armageddon]]'' and ''[[Deep Impact (film)|Deep Impact]]''. The trend continued throughout the 2000s and 2010s, evident in films like 2004's ''[[The Day After Tomorrow]]'' and 2012's ''[[The Avengers (2012 film)|The Avengers]]''.<ref name="legacy">{{cite web|url=http://www.rogerebert.com/balder-and-dash/beyond-imagination-how-independence-day-changed-the-blockbuster|title=Beyond Imagination: How 'Independence Day' Changed the Blockbuster|last=Huls|first=Alexander|date=June 29, 2016|publisher=RogerEbert.com|accessdate=July 18, 2016}}</ref>
 
==In other media==
 
=== Books ===
 
{{Main article|Independence Day (book series)}}
 
Author Stephen Molstad wrote a [[tie-in]] novel to help promote the film shortly before its release. The novel goes into further detail on the characters, situations, and overall concepts not explored in the film. The novel presents the film's finale as originally scripted, with the character played by [[Randy Quaid]] stealing a missile and roping it to his [[cropduster]] biplane.
 
Following the film's success, a [[prequel]] novel entitled ''Independence Day: Silent Zone'' was written by Molstad in February 1998.<ref>[http://www.amazon.com/dp/0061058270 "Independence Day: Silent Zone Product Details."] ''Amazon.com''. Retrieved October 8, 2007.</ref> The novel is set in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and details the early career of Dr. Brackish Okun.<ref>[http://www.biblio.com/isbn/0061058270.html "Independence Day: Silent Zone by Stephen Molstad Publisher's Notes."] ''Biblio.com''. Retrieved October 8, 2007.</ref>
 
Molstad wrote a third novel, ''Independence Day: War in the Desert'' in July 1999. Set in [[Saudi Arabia]] on July 3, it centers around Captain Cummins and Colonel Thompson, the two [[Royal Air Force]] officers seen receiving the [[Morse code]] message in the film.
 
A [[Marvel Comics|Marvel]] comic book was also written based on the first two novelizations.
 
===Radio===
On August 4, 1996, [[BBC Radio 1]] broadcast the one-hour play ''[[Independence Day UK]]'', written, produced, and directed by [[Dirk Maggs]], a spin-off depicting the alien invasion from a British perspective.<ref name="ID4UK">[http://www.dswilliams.co.uk/dirk%20maggs/Independence%20Day%20Dirk%20Maggs.htm "Independence Day UK."] ''dswilliams.co.uk''. Retrieved September 25, 2007.</ref> None of the original cast was present. Dean Devlin gave Maggs permission to produce an original version, on the condition that he did not reveal certain details of the movie's plot, and that the British were not depicted as saving the day.<ref name="ID4UK" /> ''Independence Day UK'' was set up to be similar to the 1938 radio broadcast of ''[[The War of the Worlds (radio)|The War of the Worlds]]'' - the first 20 minutes were live.<ref name="ID4UK" />
 
===Video games===
An [[Independence Day (video game)|''Independence Day'' video game]] was released in February 1997 for the [[PlayStation]], [[Sega Saturn]], and [[Personal computer|PC]], each version receiving mostly tepid reviews.<ref>[http://www.gamespot.com/search.html?type=11&stype=all&tag=search%3Bbutton&om_act=convert&om_clk=gssearch&qs=independence+day "Search results for 'independence day'."] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090922184350/http://www.gamespot.com/search.html?type=11&stype=all&tag=search%3Bbutton&om_act=convert&om_clk=gssearch&qs=independence+day |date=September 22, 2009 }} ''[[GameSpot]]''. Retrieved July 8, 2008.</ref><ref>[http://search.ign.com/products?query=independence+day Independence Day] ''[[IGN]]''. Retrieved July 8, 2008.</ref> The multi-view shooter game contains various missions to perform, with the ultimate goal of destroying the aliens' primary weapon. A wireless [[Mobile phone|mobile]] version was released in 2005. A computer game entitled ''[[ID4 Online]]'' was released in 2000.{{Citation needed|date=July 2011}}
 
===Toys===
[[Trendmasters]] released a toy line for the film in 1996.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mania.com/10-awesome-toys-from-10-awful-movies_article_121289.html |title=10 Awesome Toys from 10 Awful Movies |author=Trate, Robert T. |publisher=''Mania'' |date=March 19, 2010 |accessdate=July 4, 2013 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150419202733/http://www.mania.com/10-awesome-toys-from-10-awful-movies_article_121289.html |archivedate=April 19, 2015 |df=mdy-all }}</ref> Each action figure, vehicle or playset came with a 3 1⁄2" [[floppy disk]] that contained an interactive computer game.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.movieartmuseum.com/2012/04/30/id-4-independence-day-model-alien-supreme-commander/ |title=iD-4: Independence Day- Model Alien Supreme Commander |publisher=Movie Art Museum |date=April 30, 2012 |accessdate=July 4, 2013}}</ref>
 
==Sequel==
{{anchor|Sequel(s)}}
{{main article|Independence Day: Resurgence}}
In June 2011, Devlin confirmed that he and Emmerich had written a treatment for two [[sequel]]s to form a trilogy; both expressed the desire for [[Will Smith]] to return.<ref>{{cite news | title = Exclusive: Producer Dean Devlin Talks INDEPENDENCE DAY Sequels, STARGATE Movie Sequels, GODZILLA and More at the Saturn Awards | publisher = Collider.com | date = June 24, 2011 | url = http://collider.com/dean-devlin-independence-day-sequel-stargate-sequels/98467/ | accessdate=June 26, 2011}}</ref> In October 2011, however, discussions over Smith returning were halted, due to Fox's refusal to provide the $50 million salary demanded by Smith for the two sequels. Emmerich, however, made assurances that the films would be shot [[Back to back film production|back-to-back]], regardless of Smith's involvement.<ref>{{cite news | title = Independence Day 2 and 3 Could Happen Without Will Smith | publisher = [[MovieWeb]] | date = October 27, 2011 | url = http://www.movieweb.com/news/independence-day-2-and-3-could-happen-without-will-smith | accessdate=May 29, 2012}}</ref>
 
In March 2013, Emmerich stated that the titles of the new films would be ''ID Forever Part I'' and ''ID Forever Part II''.<ref>{{cite news | title = Roland Emmerich spills 'Independence Day' sequel details | work = Entertainment Weekly | date = March 26, 2013 | url = http://insidemovies.ew.com/2013/03/26/independence-day-sequel/ | accessdate=March 26, 2013}}</ref> In November 2014, the sequel was given the green light by 20th Century Fox, with a release date of June 24, 2016. This would be a stand-alone sequel, that would not split into two parts as originally planned, with filming beginning in May 2015 and casting being done after the studio locked down Emmerich as the director of the film.<ref>{{cite news | last = Fleming Jr | first = Mike | title = Fox Green Light Starts ‘Independence Day’ Sequel Countdown | publisher = Deadline | date = November 26, 2014 | url = http://deadline.com/2014/11/independence-day-sequel-fox-green-light-1201298276/ }}</ref> In December 2014, Devlin confirmed that Emmerich would indeed be directing the sequel.<ref>{{cite news | last = Topel | first = Fred | title = Independence Day 2" Exclusive: Why They’re Not Doing 2 Sequels At Once | publisher = NerdReport | date = December 4, 2014 | url = http://www.nerdreport.com/2014/12/04/independence-day-2-exclusive-why-theyre-not-doing-2-sequels-at-once/ }}</ref> On June 22, 2015, Emmerich announced the official title, ''[[Independence Day: Resurgence]]''.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/heat-vision/independence-day-2-official-title-804344|title = 'Independence Day 2' Official Title Revealed|work = The Hollywood Reporter}}</ref>
 
With respect to Smith's decision not to return to film a sequel, Emmerich told Screen Crush that: "In the very beginning, I wanted to work with him and he was excited to be in it but then after a while he was tired of sequels, and he did another science fiction film, which was his father-son story [''[[After Earth]]''], so he opted out."<ref>{{Cite web|title = This Is Why Will Smith Isn't in 'Independence Day 2'|url = http://screencrush.com/independence-day-2-smith/|website = ScreenCrush|accessdate = 2015-12-14}}</ref>
 
''[[Independence Day: Resurgence]]'' was released on June 24, 2016.<ref>{{Cite web|title = Independence Day: Resurgence (2016)|url = http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1628841/|website = IMDb|accessdate = 2015-12-14}}</ref>
 
== See also ==
 
* [[Independence Day (book series)|''Independence Day'' (book series)]]
* [[List of films featuring extraterrestrials]]
 
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