Διαφορά μεταξύ των αναθεωρήσεων του «Σεβαστοκράτωρ»

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'''''Sebastokratōr''''' ({{lang-el|σεβαστοκράτωρ}},; [[Bulgarian language|Bulgarian]] and [[Serbian language|Serbian]]: Севастократор; both pronounced ''sevastokrator'') was a senior court title in the late [[Byzantine Empire]]. It was also used by other rulers whose states bordered the Empire or were within its sphere of influence. The word is a [[compound (linguistics)|compound]] of "''[[sebastos]]''" ("venerable", the Greek equivalent of the [[Latin language|Latin]] ''[[Augustus (honorific)|Augustus]]'' and "''kratōr''" ("ruler", the same element as is found in "''[[autokrator|autokratōr]]''", "emperor"). The wife of a ''sebastokratōr'' was named '''''sebastokratorissa''''' (Greek: σεβαστοκρατόρισσα) in Greek or '''''sebastokratitsa''''' (Cyrillic: севастократица) in Serbian and Bulgarian.
[[File:Kalojan desislava.jpg|right|thumb|200px|Donor portrait of the [[Bulgaria]]n ''sebastokrator'' [[Kaloyan (sebastocrator)|Kaloyan]] and his wife Desislava, fresco from the [[Boyana Church]] (1259).]]
[[File:Constantine Palaiologos sebastokrator and Eirene.jpg|thumb|200px|right|The ''sebastokratōr'' [[Constantine Palaiologos (half-brother of Michael VIII)|Constantine Palaiologos]] and his wife Eirene. [[Donor portrait]] from an early 14th-century monastery ''[[typikon]]''. Note the distinctive ''stephanos'', as well as the red ''chlamys'' embroidered with golden [[double-headed eagle]]s, worn over the ''kabbadion'' kaftan.]]
'''''Sebastokratōr''''' ({{lang-el|σεβαστοκράτωρ}}, [[Bulgarian language|Bulgarian]] and [[Serbian language|Serbian]] Севастократор; both pronounced ''sevastokrator'') was a senior court title in the late [[Byzantine Empire]]. It was also used by other rulers whose states bordered the Empire or were within its sphere of influence. The word is a [[compound (linguistics)|compound]] of "''[[sebastos]]''" ("venerable", the Greek equivalent of the Latin ''[[Augustus (honorific)|Augustus]]'' and "''kratōr''" ("ruler", the same element as is found in "''[[autokrator|autokratōr]]''", "emperor"). The wife of a ''sebastokratōr'' was named '''''sebastokratorissa''''' (σεβαστοκρατόρισσα) in Greek or '''''sebastokratitsa''''' (севастократица) in Serbian and Bulgarian.
 
==History==
The title was created by Emperor [[Alexios I Komnenos]] (r. 1081–1118) to honour his elder brother [[Isaac Komnenos (brother of Alexios I)|Isaac Komnenos]].<ref name="ODB">{{cite book harvnb| editor-last=Kazhdan | editor-first=Alexander | editor-link=Alexander Kazhdan |year=1991 | title=[[Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium]] | publisher=Oxford University Press |isbn=978-0-19-504652-6 | pagep=1862}}.</ref> According to [[Anna Komnene]], Alexios did this to raise Isaac above the rank of ''[[Caesar (title)|Caesar]]'', which he had already promised to his brother-in-law, [[Nikephoros Melissenos]]. Anna Komnene calls the rank of ''sebastokratōr'' that of "a second Emperor", and also records that along with the ''Caesar'' a ''sebastokratōr'' was granted the right to wear a crown (but not the imperial diadem).<ref>[[Anna Komnene]],. ''[[Alexiad]]'', [[s:The Alexiad/Book III#Chapter IV|III3.4]].</ref> During the [[Komnenian dynasty]], the title continued to be the highest below that of Emperor until 1163, when Emperor [[Manuel I Komnenos|Manuel I]] created the title of ''[[Despot (court title)|despotēs]]''. It was at that period given exclusively to members of the imperial family, chiefly younger sons of the Byzantine emperor.<ref name="ODB"/>
 
After the occupation of the Byzantine Empire by the leaders of the [[Fourth Crusade]] in 1204, the title was adopted in the [[Latin Empire]], the [[Empire of Nicaea]], and the [[Second Bulgarian Empire|Bulgarian Empire]]. In Nicaea and the post-1261 restored Empire, the title remained one of the highest, and was almost always restricted to members of the imperial family. The last known holder of the title was [[Demetrios I Kantakouzenos|Demetrios Kantakouzenos]], a ruler in the [[Peloponnese]] in the late 14th century.<ref name="ODB"/>
 
According to the sources, the distinctive colour associated with the title was blue: the ''sebastokratōr''<nowiki>'</nowiki>s [[Byzantine dress|ceremonial costume]] included blue [[stockings]] and blue [[boots]]. In ca.circa 1260, according to [[George Akropolites]], the ''sebastokratores'' who were members of the imperial family were distinguished from those who were not by having embroidered golden [[eagles]] on their shoes.<ref>{{citation harvnb| last=Macrides | first=Ruth | title=George Akropolites: The History - Introduction, translation and commentary | publisher=Oxford University Press | year=2007 | isbnpp=978-0-19-921067-1 | page= 350, 366–367}}.</ref> By the time of [[pseudo-Kodinos]] in the mid-14th century, the embroidered eagles on a red field were standard. According to Kodinos, the ceremonial costume also included a red [[tunic]] (''[[chlamys]]'') and crown (''stephanos'', not the diadem) of red and gold.<ref>{{cite book harvnb| title=Reconstructing the reality of images: Byzantine material culture and religious. iconography (11th to 15th centuries) | last=Parani | first=Maria G. |year=2003 | publisher=BRILL | isbn=978-9004124622 | pagespp=63, 67–69, 72}}.</ref> The ''sebastokratōr'' also had the prerogative of signing documents with a special blue [[ink]].<ref name="ODB"/>
 
This title was used in [[Serbia]] during the [[Raška (state)|Kingdom of Raška]] and during the [[Serbian Empire]].
 
== References Gallery==
<center>
{{Reflist}}
<gallery>
[[File:Kalojan desislava.jpg|right|thumb|200px|Donor portrait of the [[Bulgaria]]n ''sebastokrator'' [[Kaloyan (sebastocrator)|Kaloyan]] and his wife Desislava, fresco from the [[Boyana Church]] (1259).]]
[[File:Constantine Palaiologos sebastokrator and Eirene.jpg|thumb|200px|right|The ''sebastokratōr'' [[Constantine Palaiologos (half-brother of Michael VIII)|Constantine Palaiologos]] and his wife Eirene. [[Donor portrait]] from an early 14th-century monastery ''[[typikon]]''. Note the distinctive ''stephanos'', as well as the red ''chlamys'' embroidered with golden [[double-headed eagle]]s, worn over the ''kabbadion'' kaftan.]]
File:Isaac Komnenos the Porphyrogennetos.jpg|A Byzantine [[fresco]] in the [[Chora Church]] depicting the ''sebastokrator'' [[Isaac Komnenos (brother of Alexios I)|Isaac Komnenos]], son of Emperor [[Alexios I Komnenos]].
</gallery>
</center>
 
==References==
{{reflist|2}}
 
==Sources==
{{refbegin|2}}
*{{cite book|editor-last=Kazhdan|editor-first=Alexander Petrovich|editor-link=Alexander Kazhdan|title=The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium|location=New York, New York and Oxford, United Kingdom|publisher=Oxford University Press|year=1991|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Q3u5RAAACAAJ|isbn=978-0-19-504652-6|ref=harv}}
*{{cite book|last=Macrides|first=Ruth|title=George Akropolites: The History|location=Oxford, United Kingdom|publisher=Oxford University Press|year=2007|isbn=978-0-19-921067-1|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=v_0LdWboHXwC|ref=harv}}
*{{cite book|last=Parani|first=Maria G.|title=Reconstructing the Reality of Images: Byzantine Material Culture and Religious Iconography (11th to 15th Centuries)|year=2003|location=Leiden, The Netherlands|publisher=Brill|isbn=978-9-00-412462-2|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=r9gfY--ZVYgC|ref=harv}}
{{refend|2}}
 
[[Category:Byzantine court titles]]
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